Spiritual exercises of meditation and visualization of episodes from the Christian narrative of the life, death and resurrection of Christ were not a novelty of the early modern period. But in this period, a few sets of exercises gained popularity and became available in the vernacular. None was more popular and influential than Ignatius of Loyola's Spiritual Exercises. But the growing democratization of spiritual exercises ignited fear among conservative theologians, and the chapter details the conflicts surrounding the spiritual exercises during the 16th and 17th centuries.
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