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Illusions of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism$

Richard English

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780197265901

Published to University Press Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197265901.001.0001

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date: 05 June 2020

(p.165) Index

(p.165) Index

Source:
Illusions of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism
Publisher:
British Academy

Note: Names beginning with ‘al-’ are indexed under the next part of the name.

7/7 attacks 68
9/11 attacks:
impact of 59, 96
legislative responses to 90–2
objectives of 98
as surprise 59, 62–3
UK response to 59, 63, 91
and US exceptionalism 51, 52
US response to 22–3, 59, 64, 91, 101–2, 113
32-County Sovereignty Committee (later Movement) (32CSM) 126, 133
Abu Zubayr 35
accommodation phase 100–1, 107
Adebolajo, Michael 39
Adebowale, Michael 39
Afghan Taliban, in Pakistan 47, 48, 102
Afghanistan:
future of al-Qaida in 34–5
state-building in 42
US military action in 102
Ain Amenas attack 35
Alexander II 98
Algeria 26, 35
alliances:
of secret states 108 see also international partnerships
amnesties 100
anarchist wave 96, 97
Ansar al-Sharia group 25, 26
anti-Americanism 47, 60, 148, 150, 156
anti-colonial wave 97
anti-Communism 78–9, 87, 88
Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security (ATCS) Act (2001) 65
anticipatory action, see pre-emptive action
AQAP (al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula) 26, 33, 37
AQIM (al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb) 35
Arab Spring 24–8, 123
arrests 117–18
assassinations 98, 102, 118
authoritarian regimes:
al-Qaida’s opposition to 23–8
Western support of 24, 38, 150, 156
aviation, protection of 63, 102–3
Aweys, Hassan Dahir 35
Bacevich, Andrew 43
al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr 21, 29, 36, 37
Bali nightclub bombing 65
Belmokhtar, Mokhtar 35
bin Laden, Osama:
and identification of enemy 36–7
justifications and ideology of 22, 28, 29–31, 32–3
strategy of 98
as threat 63
US strategy to find 102
Blair, Tony 8–9, 59–60
Bloody Sunday 101
Boko Haram 37
Bosnian war 59
Brahimi, Alia 21
Bush administration:
legacy of 109
response to 9/11 attacks 22–3, 24
and US foreign policy 51
capacity building 45–9
capture of leaders 117–18
(p.166) Carter, Jimmy 151
Central America, US empire in 149–51
Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) 69
CIRA (Continuity IRA) 126
civil liberties, relationship with counter-terrorism 16–17, 57–8, 61–2, 71–2, 73–4
civil resistance 7, 24
civilian aviation 63, 102–3
civilian casualties 14, 15, 29–31, 107
coercion strategy 113–14
Cold War:
and democracy 89
and terrorism 86–7
US identity following 50–2
colonial violence 85 see also anti-colonial wave
colonialism:
and democracy in Israel 84, 86
and democracy in UK 79–80 see also empires
Communism:
anti-Communism 78–9, 87, 88
and control of radicalism in UK 78–9, 82
Communist parties, and US hierarchy 153
community:
dissident republican 129–32
nationalist concept of 127–8
compellence strategy 113–14
conflict:
shift in strategic character of 42–5
stages of 99 see also insurgency
CONTEST (counter-terrorism strategy) 65–9
Continuity IRA (CIRA) 126
coordination, of counter-terrorism actors 142
corrupt regimes:
al-Qaida’s opposition to 23–8 see also authoritarian regimes
counter-insurgency 161–4
counter-insurgency warfare (COIN) 160, 161
counter-terrorism:
consequences of 8–9, 39, 45–53, 66–7, 103–4
control of domestic dissent 90–3
imperfect origins of 75–7
international coordination of 45, 142
lessons from GWoT 53–5
origins and democracy in Israel 83–8
origins and democracy in UK 77–83
origins and democracy in USA 88–90
and ‘partner’ governments 24, 38, 45–9, 106
past experience of 63–4, 100–1
and perceptions of threat, see threat
pre-emptive action 58–9, 60
relationship with democracy 16–17, 73–4, 92–3
relationship with liberties and rights 16–17, 57–8, 61–2, 69, 71–2, 73–4, 95–6
relationship with terrorism 1–2, 12–13, 15–16, 66–7
role of intelligence 8, 58, 69, 71–2, 141
shifting US policy 22–3, 24, 105–9
strategic approach 112–13, 116
strategies and phases of 99–101, 117–19, 121, 122, 158–61
UK strategy 65–9, 137–43
and understanding campaign endings 40–1, 111–12, 116, 123
US strategy and tactics 66, 67, 91, 146, 158–9
counter-terrorism laws, see criminal justice; legislation
CPNI (Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure) 69
credibility, in counter-terrorism 143
(p.167) Crenshaw, Martha 5, 40
criminal justice:
characteristics of anti-terrorist 91–2
miscarriages of 105, 142
role of police 63, 81, 140–1
and UK counter terrorism 62, 63–4, 81–2 see also legislation
criminalisation phase 99–100, 105–6
criminality, terrorist transition to 121–2
Critical Terrorism Studies (CTS) 11–12
Cronin, Audrey Kurth 40–1, 111
culture, and nationalism 127, 130
decapitation, as terrorist ending 41, 117–18, 122, 158
Defence of the Realm Act (1914) 78
democracy:
and counter-terrorism in Israel 83–8
and counter-terrorism in UK 77–83
and counter-terrorism in USA 88–90
definition of 75
imperfect origins of 75–7
and international hierarchies 148, 151, 152
relationship with counter-terrorism 16–17, 73–4, 92–3 see also civil liberties; human rights
democratisation of Islamic authority 31–4
Dershowitz, Alan 6
descent, and nationalism 127, 130
digital technology 58, 70
dissident Irish republicanism:
background to contemporary 125–6
future of 143–4
limited support for 136, 137, 139
and nationalist community 129–32
and nationalist struggle 132–3
and power 133–4
state response to 137–43
threat of 125, 135–7
and UK experience of terrorism 63–4, 80
understood in nationalist context 129–35
Doctrine of the International Community 60
domestic dissent 64–5, 85, 90–3 see also dissident Irish republicanism
Donnelly, Gary 133–4
drone attacks 47, 64, 106–7, 109, 118, 123
economic hierarchies 147
efficacy of counter-terrorism:
assessing 8, 13, 40–2, 53–5
GWoT as fuel for al-Qaida ideology 49–53, 54
and shifting character of war 42–5
and understanding terrorist endings 40–1, 111–12, 116
and unintended consequences 8–9, 45–9
efficacy of terrorism 6–7, 16, 41, 119–21, 122–3
efficacy of violence, illusions of 14, 16, 17, 18
Egypt 27–8, 38
Emmet, Robert 130–1
empires:
and democracy 79–80
and international hierarchies 147
US in Central America 149–51
US in Europe and Northeast Asia 151–3
US in Middle East 153–6 see also colonialism
English, Richard 1, 125
entrapment 105
ethics, and nationalism 127, 131–2
Europe:
domestic jihadist threat 64–5
radical groups in 85
US empire in 151–3 see also UK
(p.168) exceptionalism, of USA 50–2
exclusiveness, and nationalism 127, 132
failure, of terrorist objectives 7, 41, 120–1, 122–3
‘far enemy’, al-Qaida’s focus on 23, 36–7, 66, 116
foreign policy, of USA 49–52, 102, 109
Fort Hood shootings 39
fragmentation:
of al-Qaida 32–3, 35–6
of IRA 126
fratricide 120
game theory 114
Gearty, Conor 5, 73
Gillespie, Judith 135–6
global insurgency:
in response to Pax Americana 145–6, 156–8
solutions to 161–4
state-building reaction to 146, 158–61
Global War on Terror (GWoT):
efficacy of 40, 41–2
as fuel for al-Qaida ideology 49–53, 54
lessons from 53–5
Obama’s move away from 105–9
shifting character of war 42–5
terrorist attacks as response to 39, 103–4
unintended consequences of 45–9
globalisation 104, 158 see also Pax Americana
Guelke, Adrian 5, 95
Hart, Gary 44
Hasan, Nidal Malik 39
hermeneutical approach 10–12
history, and nationalism 127, 130–1
Hoffman, Bruce 9–10
human rights, relationship with counter-terrorism 16–17, 57–8, 61–2, 69, 71–2, 73–4, 95–6
Hussein, Saddam 102
hybrid warfare 44
hyper-securitisation as fuel for al-Qaida 49–53
illusions:
of efficacy of violence 14, 16, 17, 18
of military efficacy 14, 15
sequence of responsive 16, 17
imperialism:
and democracy in UK 79–80
of USA 89 see also empires
implosion, of terrorist groups 120
individual terrorism 33–4
individuals, in concept of jihad 32–4
inequality, and democracy 76, 77–9, 88–9, 92
information:
and credibility of counter-terrorism 143
misinformation 108–9
public reassurance 58, 61–2, 68, 71, 143 see also intelligence
information leaks 70, 107, 108
Inspire magazine 33–4
insurgency:
in response to Pax Americana 145–6, 156–8
solutions to 161–4
state-building reaction to 146, 158–61
terrorist transition to 122, 123, 124
intelligence:
assessment of al-Qaida 66
misinformation 108–9
intelligence services:
role in counter-terrorism 8, 58, 69, 71–2, 141
US approach 64
use of digital technology 58, 70
(p.169) international community, role of 59–60
international coordination of counter-terrorism 45, 142
international hierarchies 147–8
USA in Central America 149–51
USA in Europe and Northeast Asia 151–3
USA in Middle East 153–6
international partnerships 24, 38, 45–9, 106
Iran 90, 157
Iraq:
ISIS in 123–4
state-building in 42
US intervention in 60, 102, 113, 157
Irgun 120
Islamic authority:
and al-Qaida 28–9, 66
democratisation of 31–4
Islamic State 21–2, 36, 124
Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) 32
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) 21
authority and leadership of 36
future of 37
strategy of 114
Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS):
alternative names 111 n.
drone attacks against 109
growth of 123–4
potential demise of 124 see also Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Islamisation, in Pakistan 47
Islamists, repression of political 27–8
Islamophobia 105
Israel:
counter-terrorism and democracy in 83–8
reliance on USA 155
Jamat al-Nusra 21, 123, 124
Jervis, Robert 162
jihad:
al-Qaida justification for 28–9
individual participation in 32–3
Jones, D.M. 11
JTAC (Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre) 69
Kenya 35, 38
Kilcullen, David 43
Kosovo war 59–60
Kuwait 155
Lake, David A. 145
Laqueur, Walter 6
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) 49
law enforcement, see criminal justice
law of unintended consequences 45–9
leaders:
capture/killing of 102, 117–18
legitimacy of 148, 159–61
leadership, emergence of virtuous 28–30
Lebanon 90
legislation:
in Israel 83
in UK 65, 78, 80–1, 83, 91, 100 see also criminal justice
legitimacy:
of states 159–61
of subordinate leaders 148, 159–61
LeT (Lashkar-e-Taiba) 49
liberal democracy, and US foreign policy 49–50
liberal state-building 160
liberties, see civil liberties
Libya 24–5
loyalist paramilitaries 136
(p.170) McCarthyism 88
madaris 47
mainstream Irish republicanism 139
Mali 24–5
Marighella, Carlos 114
martyrdom 29
mass casualty attacks 96, 121 see also 7/7 attacks; 9/11 attacks
mass surveillance 70
media coverage of terrorism 105
Middle East:
counter-insurgency options 161–4
politics and religion in 157
US role in 153–6
US withdrawal from 162–3
militant groups:
in Pakistan 46–9 see also radical groups
military capability of USA 43
military efficacy, illusion of 14, 15
military intervention:
in Afghanistan 102
drone attacks 47, 64, 106–7, 109, 118, 123
role of international community 59–60
state overreliance on 8–9, 53, 139–40
and US empire 149
and US foreign policy 50
Western presence in Muslim lands 22–3
miscarriages of justice 105, 142
misinformation 108–9
mobilisation strategy 115–16 see also recruitment
Munich Olympics massacre 115–16
Murphy, Conor 137
Muslim Brotherhood 27–8
Muslim communities, radicalisation within 104
Muslim lands, ending Western presence in 22–3
Muslims:
al-Qaida’s defence of 30–1 see also Western Muslims
Nairobi, Westgate siege 35
Narodnaya Volya 98, 114
national resilience 58, 68, 71, 138
nationalism:
defining 127–9
dissident republicanism in context of 129–35
motivations 128, 133
and power 128–9, 133–4
nationalist community 127–8, 129–32
nationalist struggle 128, 132–3
negotiation, as terrorist ending 41, 119, 122
neo-democracy 74
New Labour 59–60
New Left wave 97
new terrorism debate 96
non-combatant immunity 29–30
Northeast Asia, US empire in 151–3
Northern Ireland:
accommodationist approach to 100–1
and democracy 80
and UK experience of terrorism 63–4 see also dissident Irish republicanism
nuclear attack, fear of 113
al-Nusra front 21, 123, 124
Ó Bradaigh, Ruairi 132
Ó Bradaigh, Sean 130–1
Obama administration, approach to counter-terrorism 23, 24, 105–9
Obama, Barack 95
Óglaigh na hÉireann (ONH) 126, 132
oil, and US in Middle East 154, 163
Oklahoma City bombing 101
Omand, David 57
OPEC 154, 163
orthodox terrorism studies 11
outcome goals 119–20
Pakistan 46–9
Palestinian Liberation Army (PLA) 85
(p.171) Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO) 115–16
Palestinian violence 85–6
partnerships, see international partnerships
Pax Americana 145
in Central America 149–51
in Europe 151–3
expansion of 147–56
global insurgence as reaction to 145–6, 156–8
in Middle East 153–6
state-building response to insurgency 146, 158–61
peace process (Irish) 100, 133–4, 138
peaceful protest 7, 24
PIRA, see Provisional IRA
polarisation strategy 115
police service 63, 81, 140–1
policy, relationship with scholarship 17
political Islamists, repression of 27–8
political leaders, legitimacy of 148, 159–61
population:
and polarisation strategy 115 see also civilian casualties; public reassurance
power:
and dissident republicanism 133–4
and nationalism 128–9 see also international hierarchies
pre-emptive action, counter-terrorist 58–9, 60
pre-emptive intelligence 69–70, 71–2
‘Prepare’ campaign of CONTEST 68
‘Prevent’ campaign of CONTEST 68
Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act (1974) 80
Prevention of Violence (Temporary Provisions) Act (1939) 80
Price, Marian 132
Probst, Peter S. 45
process goals 119
‘Protect’ campaign of CONTEST 68
Provisional IRA (PIRA):
campaigns 63
and dissident republicanism 125–6
organisational changes 126
state response to 100–1
strategy and aims of 98
Provisional Sinn Fein, compromises of 131–2, 134
provocation strategy 114–15
PSNI (Police Service of Northern Ireland) 140
public reassurance 58, 61–2, 68, 71, 143
publications, by al-Qaida 33–4
Punjab, militant groups in 48–9
‘Pursue’ campaign of CONTEST 67
al-Qadhafi, Muammar 24–5
al-Qahtani, Farouk 34
al-Qaida:
and democratisation of authority 31–4
efficacy of counter-terrorist response to 41–2
future of 34–8, 122–3, 124
ideology fuelled by GWoT 49–53, 54
and ISIL 21
leaders captured/killed 102, 118
objectives of 22–31, 66, 116
organisational change within 9–10, 32–3, 35–6
in Pakistan 47, 48–9
perceived as threat 62–3, 64, 106, 113
US identity in relation to 51–3
and US strategy 47, 60, 102
al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) 26, 33, 37
al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) 35
(p.172) radical groups, in Europe 64–5, 68, 85
radicalisation, within Muslim communities 64–5, 104
radicalism:
controlled in UK 78–9
controlled in USA 88
Rapoport, David 7, 97
Reagan, Ronald 151
Real IRA (RIRA) 126
recruitment 33–4, 64–5, 104, 115
regime change 158–9
Reinares, Fernando 10
religious fundamentalism, and politics in Middle East 157
religious wave of terrorism 97, 103
reorientation, as terrorist ending 41, 121–3, 124
repression:
by subordinate leaders 148
of political Islamists 27–8
as terrorist ending 41, 121, 122 see also suppression phase
Republican Sinn Féin (RSF) 126, 130–1, 132, 137
resilience, to terrorism 58, 68, 71, 138
retrenchment 162–3
revenge attacks 103
Rice, Condoleezza 113
Richardson, Louise 7
Rigby, Lee 39
Rights, see human rights
RIRA (Real IRA) 126
risk, communicating to public 61–2, 68, 71
risk appetites 62
risk management 67–8, 71
Robow, Mukhtar 35
rule of law, see criminal justice; legislation
Sageman, Marc 9
Salafi Taliban 34
Saudi Arabia 28, 155
scholarship:
growth of on terrorism 3–4
relationship with policy 17
secret states 108
security hierarchies 147
Security and Intelligence Coordinator 65
al-Shabaab 35
‘Signed-in-Blood’ brigade 35
Singh, Rashmi 39
Sinn Fein 126, 130–2, 134, 136–7, 139
Smith, M.L.R. 11
Snowden, Edward 70, 108
sovereignty:
and nationalism 128–9, 133–4 see also international hierarchies
Soviet Union 86–7, 151–2
spying, see information leaks
state activity, defined as terrorism 4–5
state-building 42, 146, 149, 153, 158–61
states:
impact of non-state terrorism on 16–17
provocation of 114–15
responses to terrorism, see counter-terrorism
strategic assessment 61
strategic bombing 113
strategic character of war 42–5
strategic objectives, terrorist 119–20
success, of terrorist objectives 6–7, 41, 119–20, 122
suicide attacks 6–7, 29, 63, 103
support:
limited for dissident republicans 136, 137, 139
loss of 120–1, 123
recruitment and mobilisation 33–4, 104, 115
undermined by violence 14, 15, 31
(p.173) suppression phase 99, 100, 109 see also repression
al-Suri, Abu Khalid 21
surveillance 70
Syria 26–7, 123
tactical objectives, terrorist 119
Taliban:
Afghan Taliban in Pakistan 48
Pakistani relationship with 46
Salafi Taliban 34
US military action against 47, 102
targeting errors 121
Tehrik-e-Taliban-e-Pakistan (TTP) 48
territory, and nationalism 127, 129
terrorism:
conceptualisations of 1 n. 1, 4–6, 86, 90, 92, 97–8, 103
global nature of 158
growth of scholarship on 3–4
hermeneutical framework 10–12
impact on states 16–17
key areas of study 4–10
need for new framework 12–14
as reaction to Pax Americana 156–8
relationship with counter-terrorism 1–2, 12–13, 15–16, 66–7
state-building reaction to 158–61
threat of, see threat
understanding 19–20
Terrorism Act (2000) 81
terrorist attacks:
mass casualty attacks 96, 121
problems of interpreting 103–4
as response to GWoT 39, 103–4
role of West in provoking 104
targeting errors 121 see also 7/7 attacks; 9/11 attacks
terrorist campaigns:
ending al-Qaida and ISIS 122–4
ending in Northern Ireland 138, 139
patterns of endings 117–22
understanding decline of 40–1, 111–12, 116, 123
terrorist efficacy 6–7, 16, 41, 119–21, 122–3
terrorist ideology:
fuelled by GWoT 49–53, 54
importance of countering 106
terrorist networks 64–5, 158
terrorist objectives:
al-Qaida’s 22–31, 66, 116
failure of 7, 41, 120–1, 122–3
success of 6–7, 41, 119–20, 122
understanding 98–9
terrorist strategies 98–9, 112–17
terrorist waves 96, 97
terrorists:
capture/killing of leaders 102, 117–18
life span of groups 120
use of digital technology 58
Western Muslim recruits 64–5, 68, 104 see also al-Qaida; dissident Irish republicanism
threat:
dissident republicanism as 125, 135–7
perceptions of 60–5, 71, 105, 106, 113
al-Qaida as 62–3, 64, 106, 113
torture 102
transition, see reorientation
TTP (Tehrik-e-Taliban-e-Pakistan) 48
Tuareg people 25
Tunisia 26
UK:
control of domestic dissent 91
counter-terrorism and democracy in 77–83
counter-terrorism strategy 65–9, 137–43
domestic jihadist threat 64–5, 68
experience of counter-terrorism 63–4, 100–1
experience of terrorism 63–4, 100–1
perceptions of threat 63–4, 125, 135–7
(p.174) pre-emptive intelligence 69–70
responses to 9/11 attacks 59, 63, 91
state responses to terrorism 100–1 see also dissident Irish republicanism
Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) 120
unintended consequences, see efficacy of counter-terrorism
United Arab Emirates 155
urban guerrillas 85
USA:
al-Qaida accusations against 22
control of domestic dissent in 91
counter-insurgency of 161–4
counter-terrorism and democracy in 88–90
counter-terrorism strategy 66, 67, 91, 146, 158–9
empire in Central America 149–51
empire in Europe and Northeast Asia 151–3
empire in Middle East 153–6
exceptionalism and identity 50–2
foreign policy 49–52, 102, 109
global insurgency against 156–8
and international hierarchies 147–8
macro-securitisation policy as fuel for al-Qaida ideology 49–53
military capability of 43
perceptions of threat 64, 106, 113
previous experience of terrorism 101
response to 9/11 attacks 22–3, 59, 64, 91, 101–2, 113
response to global insurgency 146, 158–61
role in state-building 146, 158–61
shifting counter-terrorism policy 22–3, 24, 105–9
withdrawal from Middle East 162–3 see also anti-Americanism
victims, see civilian casualties
violence:
colonial 85
dissident republican 126, 132, 135–6
illusion of efficacy of 14, 16, 17, 18
stages of state response to 99–101 see also military intervention; terrorist attacks
virtuous leadership, al-Qaida as 28–30
Volunteers of Ireland, see Óglaigh na hÉireann
war:
shift in strategic character of 42–5
terrorist transition to 122, 124
War on Terror, see Global War on Terror
Washington Consensus 102, 104, 151
weapons of mass destruction (WMD) 60, 102
Western Muslims:
and individualisation of jihad 33–4
recruited to terrorism 64–5, 68, 104
Western presence in Muslim lands 22–3
Westernisation, see Pax Americana
Westgate shopping centre siege 35
Wiki-Leaks 108
Wilkinson, Paul 7
World War I 78
Yemen 26
al-Zarqawi, Abu Musab 31
al-Zawahiri, Ayman 21, 34, 36, 63, 116