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Priority to the Least Advantaged

Jonathan Wolff and Avner De-Shalit

in Disadvantage

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199278268
eISBN:
9780191707902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278268.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter explores the implications of ‘priority to the worst off’. It is often argued that such a policy is counter-intuitive in that it can require the diversion of a great deal of resources to ... More


Distribution of Resources: Need and Outcome

F. M. Kamm

in Morality, Mortality Volume I: Death and Whom to Save From It

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195119114
eISBN:
9780199872244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195119118.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Begins the discussion of organ distribution for transplantation presented in the last four chapters of Part III of the book by analysing factors that may be relevant in three situations: true ... More


Principles of Equity

Aaron James

in Fairness in Practice: A Social Contract for a Global Economy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199846153
eISBN:
9780199933389
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199846153.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter elaborates and defends three basic principles of structural equity. A first requires that “losers” be compensated, in light of a proposed general conception of when a person or social ... More


Distribution of Resources: Urgency and Outcome

F. M. Kamm

in Morality, Mortality Volume I: Death and Whom to Save From It

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195119114
eISBN:
9780199872244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195119118.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Continues the discussion of organ distribution for transplantation presented in the last four chapters of Part III of the book. Discusses the relative weight that should be assigned to urgency and ... More


The Badness of Death and What to Do about It (if Anything)

F. M. Kamm

in Saving People from the Harm of Death

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780190921415
eISBN:
9780190921446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190921415.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter surveys different accounts of the factors that make death bad and that make one death worse than another both intrapersonally and interpersonally. It focuses on (1) deprivation of future ... More


The Leximin Desire Principle

Joseph Mendola

in Human Interests: or Ethics for Physicalists

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199682829
eISBN:
9780191763007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199682829.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter propounds a principle for ordering outcomes from worse to better. In the basic case, it is a maximin principle that specifies that one alternative is better than another if it is better ... More


Incorporating Distributional Concerns into Practical Tools for Priority-Setting

Ole F. Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Mieraf Taddesse Tolla, Solomon Tessema Memirie, and Kjell Arne Johansson

in Global Health Priority-Setting: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190912765
eISBN:
9780190912796
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190912765.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The aim of this chapter is to provide examples of how distributional concerns can be incorporated into practical tools for priority-setting, and to discuss the underlying normative technical choices ... More


Priority to the Worse Off: Severity of Current and Future Illness Versus Shortfall in Lifetime Health

Erik Nord

in Inequalities in Health: Concepts, Measures, and Ethics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199931392
eISBN:
9780199345731
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931392.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In evaluating treatment programs for different diagnostic groups, there is evidence that decision makers and the population at large in a number of countries wish to give priority to those with more ... More


Atkinson’s Index Applied to Health: Can Measures of Economic Inequality Help Us Understand Tradeoffs in Health Care Priority Setting?

Ole F. Norheim

in Inequalities in Health: Concepts, Measures, and Ethics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199931392
eISBN:
9780199345731
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931392.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Some authors have suggested that inequality in health at population level could be explored by using inequality measures derived from measurement of income inequality. Would it make sense to ... More


The Retroactivity Problem

Barbara Baum Levenbook

in Time and Identity

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014090
eISBN:
9780262265799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014090.003.0204
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter discusses the retroactivity problem and how it arises when the idea that events occurring after a person’s life can harm that person is pursued. The common objection to this dilemma is ... More


Conclusions

T. M. Scanlon

in Why Does Inequality Matter?

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198812692
eISBN:
9780191850509
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812692.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Different forms of inequality are objectionable for different reasons. These reasons overlap, and the cumulative effect is a kind of egalitarian priority for the worst off, who have the strongest ... More


Cognitive Enhancement and the Leveling of the Playing Field: The Case of Latin America

Daniel Loewe

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter addresses the prevalence and normative implications of cognitive enhancement in Latin America. According to the author, a policy of open market access to cognitive ... More


Can There be Moral Force to Favoring an Identified over a Statistical Life?

Norman Daniels

in Identified versus Statistical Lives: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780190217471
eISBN:
9780190217488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190217471.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Some researchers attribute the bias in favor of identified persons over statistical persons at risk to the concentration of risk that identified victims face. If they are right, and the concentration ... More


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