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Actual versus “virtual” short-term memory phenomena

Nelson Cowan

in Attention and Memory: An Integrated Framework

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195119107
eISBN:
9780199870097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195119107.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

In computer jargon, virtual memory is the use of a specially-designated portion of long-term memory to hold information that needs to be retrieved quickly. This chapter considers that the same type ... More


Ethical considerations for the scheduling of work in continuous operations: physicians in training as a case study

C.A. Czeisler

in Sleep, Health and Society: From Aetiology to Public Health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199566594
eISBN:
9780191595066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566594.003.0021
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

One of the barriers that has repeatedly derailed attempts to address the issue of work-hour restrictions is the long hours worked by resident physicians during training. It is very difficult for ... More


Gender and the politics of time: Feminist theory and contemporary debates

Valerie Bryson

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861347503
eISBN:
9781447302391
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861347503.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Gender and Sexuality

Women's increased role in the labour market has combined with concerns about the damaging effects of long working hours to push time-related issues up the policy agenda in many Western nations. This ... More


Thwarted Ambitions and Sympathy: Long Working Hours, Sex Segregation, and the Price of Masculinity

Kumiko Nemoto

in Too Few Women at the Top: The Persistence of Inequality in Japan

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781501702488
eISBN:
9781501706219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501702488.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Occupations, Professions, and Work

This chapter illustrates how the culture of long working hours continues to reinforce vertical segregation in the workplace through three processes: remasculinization of management; non-career-track ... More


Women Working Longer: Increased Employment at Older Ages

Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz (eds)

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226532509
eISBN:
9780226532646
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226532646.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

American women in their sixties and seventies are working more now than ever. Their increased participation at older ages started in the late 1980s, before the turnaround in older men’s labor force ... More


The Political Economy of Working Time and Redistribution

Lucy Barnes

in The Political Economy of the Service Transition

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199657285
eISBN:
9780191745133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657285.003.0009
Subject:
Business and Management, Political Economy

The transition to service-based economies has been accompanied by large shifts in the distribution of work within the populations of the advanced democracies. This includes a rise of part-time ... More


Introduction

Axel Börsch-Supan and Courtney C. Coile

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Reforms and Retirement Incentives

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780226674100
eISBN:
9780226674247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This is the introduction to the ninth phase of the project on International Social Security. This project, which compares the experiences of 12 developed countries, was launched in the mid-1990s ... More


Time use in capitalist societies

Valerie Bryson

in Gender and the politics of time: Feminist theory and contemporary debates

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861347503
eISBN:
9781447302391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861347503.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Gender and Sexuality

This chapter looks at how people spend their time in capitalist societies today. Focusing first on free time as a scarce resource, it considers how this should be distributed and whether citizens' ... More


How Important is Asset Allocation to Americans’ Financial Retirement Security?

Alicia H. Munnell, Natalia Orlova, and Anthony Webb

in The Market for Retirement Financial Advice

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199683772
eISBN:
9780191763359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683772.003.0005
Subject:
Business and Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Financial advice tends to focus on financial assets, but other levers may be more important for most households. This chapter proceeds in three stages. First, we report a simple Excel spreadsheet ... More


Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Reforms and Retirement Incentives

Axel Börsch-Supan and Courtney C. Coile (eds)

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780226674100
eISBN:
9780226674247
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Through the coordination of work of a team of analysts in twelve countries for twenty years, the International Social Security (ISS) project has used the differences in social security programs ... More


Women Working Longer: Facts and Some Explanations

Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz

in Women Working Longer: Increased Employment at Older Ages

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226532509
eISBN:
9780226532646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226532646.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

American women are working more, through their sixties and even into their seventies. Their increased participation at older ages started in the late 1980s before the turnaround in older men’s labor ... More


Harm reduction regimes and the production of autonomy and relational harms

Simon Pemberton

in Harmful societies: Understanding social harm

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9781847427946
eISBN:
9781447307846
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781847427946.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Urban and Rural Studies

This chapter scrutinises the performance of the selected nation states and the regime types in relation to autonomy and relational harms. The harms included in this chapter are poverty, child ... More


Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in Germany

Axel Börsch-Supan, Johannes Rausch, and Nicolas Goll

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Reforms and Retirement Incentives

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780226674100
eISBN:
9780226674247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

As in the other countries in this volume, the employment rate in Germany for those aged 55 to 69 had been declining in recent decades, and then began to rise dramatically. Among the 12 countries ... More


A Lifetime of Changes: State Pensions and Work Incentives at Older Ages in the UK, 1948–2018

James Banks and Carl Emmerson

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Reforms and Retirement Incentives

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780226674100
eISBN:
9780226674247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

We describe the history of state pension policy in the UK since 1948 and calculate summary measures of the generosity of the system over time and the degree to which it created implicit taxes on, or ... More


Social Security Programs and Employment at Older Ages in the Netherlands

Klaas de Vos, Arie Kapteyn, and Adriaan Kalwij

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Reforms and Retirement Incentives

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780226674100
eISBN:
9780226674247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

There have been a vast number of social security reforms aimed at increasing employment at older ages over the last two decades in the Netherlands. We examine the eligibility criteria and the ... More


The Evolution of Retirement Incentives in the US

Courtney C. Coile

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Reforms and Retirement Incentives

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780226674100
eISBN:
9780226674247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Employment rates of older men and women in the U.S. have been rising for the past several decades. Over the same period, there have been significant changes in Social Security and private pensions, ... More


Social Security Incentives in Belgium: An Analysis of Four Decades of Change

Anne-Lore Fraikin, Alain Jousten, and Mathieu Lefebvre

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Reforms and Retirement Incentives

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780226674100
eISBN:
9780226674247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter traces labor market reforms in Belgium over the last four decades. While Belgium was long characterized by low employment and labor force participation rates of the elderly male ... More


Workers’ Employment Rates and Pension Reforms in France: The Role of Implicit Labor Taxation

Didier Blanchet, Antoine Bozio, Simon Rabaté, and Muriel Roger

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Reforms and Retirement Incentives

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780226674100
eISBN:
9780226674247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Over the last fifteen years, France has experienced a reversal of older workers’ labor force participation and employment rates. Changes in health, life expectancy or education levels over the period ... More


Trends in Employment and Social Security Incentives in the Spanish Pension System, 1980–2016

Pilar García-Gómez, Sílvia Garcia-Mandicó, Sergi Jiménez-Martín, and Judit Vall-Castelló

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Reforms and Retirement Incentives

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780226674100
eISBN:
9780226674247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

In this chapter, we analyze the association between financial incentives and retirement decisions using aggregate data over four decades in Spain. We first compute expected social security benefits ... More


Introduction

Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz

in Women Working Longer: Increased Employment at Older Ages

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226532509
eISBN:
9780226532646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226532646.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

American women are participating in the labor force more than ever into their sixties and even seventies. Their participation rates when 55 to 64 years old now differ from men’s by less than 10 ... More


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