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Labor Conditions around the World

Robert J. Flanagan

in Globalization and Labor Conditions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195306002
eISBN:
9780199783564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195306007.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter introduces the measures of working conditions and labor rights that are the focus of the book and shows how labor conditions changed in the late 20th century. The key working conditions ... More


Chapter Chapter Work and Retirement Plans Among Older Americans

Katharine G. Abraham and Susan N. Houseman

in Reinventing the Retirement Paradigm

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199284603
eISBN:
9780191603013
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199284601.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter focuses on older individuals' plans for retirement and the realization of those plans. Using HRS data, the widespread interest among workers approaching retirement age in cutting back on ... More


Working Time Developments in Germany

Francis Kramarz, Pierre Cahuc, Bruno Crépon, Oskar Nordstörm Skans, Thorsten Schank, Gijsbert van Lomwel, and André Zylberberg

in Working Hours and Job Sharing in the EU and USA: Are Europeans Lazy? Or Americans Crazy?

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231027
eISBN:
9780191710834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231027.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

The length of the standard workweek has been a contentious topic in Germany over the past thirty years. In the 1980s and 1990s, trade unions reached agreements to reduce normal hours, in order to ... More


Labor: Quantity

R. C. O. Matthews, C. H. Feinstein, and J. C. Odling‐Smee

in British Economic Growth 1856-1973: The Post-War Period in Historical Perspective

Published in print:
1982
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198284536
eISBN:
9780191596629
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198284535.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Labour input (measured in man‐hours) reached its all‐time high in 1913, before falling steeply in 1913–24. The post‐war period was unique among peacetime phases in having a decline in labour input, ... More


The Uses and Abuses of Time

Shehzad Nadeem

in Dead Ringers: How Outsourcing Is Changing the Way Indians Understand Themselves

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691147871
eISBN:
9781400836697
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691147871.003.0005
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter examines how transnational companies make use of what it calls time arbitrage—the exploitation of time discrepancies between geographical labor markets to make a profit. The extension of ... More


The Impact of Time Spent Working and Job Fit on Well-Being Around the World

James K. Harter and Raksha Arora

in International Differences in Well-Being

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199732739
eISBN:
9780199776887
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732739.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Based on Gallup World Poll data collected in seven regions of the world, this chapter studies the relationship between hours worked, perceived job fit, and well-being. Workers who are in more ... More


Measuring and Analyzing Employment Performance

Lane Kenworthy

in Jobs with Equality

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199550593
eISBN:
9780191720727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550593.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

This chapter describes a way to conceptualize and measure employment performance. It argues that to assess employment performance since the late 1970s, the most useful measure is employment change. ... More


General Conclusion

Francis Kramarz, Pierre Cahuc, Bruno Crépon, Oskar Nordstörm Skans, Thorsten Schank, Gijsbert van Lomwel, and André Zylberberg

in Working Hours and Job Sharing in the EU and USA: Are Europeans Lazy? Or Americans Crazy?

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231027
eISBN:
9780191710834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231027.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This concluding chapter presents a synthesis of the discussions in the preceding chapters. It is argued that in no country that engaged in ‘straight’ work-sharing (i.e., decreasing the workweek from, ... More


The End of Standard Working Time?

Huw Beynon, Damian Grimshaw, Jill Rubery, and Kevin Ward

in Managing Employment Change: The New Realities of Work

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199248698
eISBN:
9780191697760
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199248698.003.0008
Subject:
Business and Management, HRM / IR, Organization Studies

This chapter discusses the significant and ongoing changes taking place in the way time is organized in large organizations. There is clear indication from management that working-time changes were ... More


The Two French Work‐Sharing Experiments: Employment and Productivity Effects

Francis Kramarz, Pierre Cahuc, Bruno Crépon, Oskar Nordstörm Skans, Thorsten Schank, Gijsbert van Lomwel, and André Zylberberg

in Working Hours and Job Sharing in the EU and USA: Are Europeans Lazy? Or Americans Crazy?

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231027
eISBN:
9780191710834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231027.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter examines workweek reductions experiments in France. Using the 1982 workweek reduction, it is shown that work-sharing policies, per se, do not work. Put differently, they are not apt to ... More


Ethical considerations for the scheduling of work in continuous operations: physicians in training as a case study

C.A. Czeisler

in Sleep, Health and Society: From Aetiology to Public Health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199566594
eISBN:
9780191595066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566594.003.0021
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

One of the barriers that has repeatedly derailed attempts to address the issue of work-hour restrictions is the long hours worked by resident physicians during training. It is very difficult for ... More


Time Use and Work Timing Inside and Outside the Market

Michael C. Burda, Daniel S. Hamermesh, and Philippe Weil

in Working Hours and Job Sharing in the EU and USA: Are Europeans Lazy? Or Americans Crazy?

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231027
eISBN:
9780191710834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231027.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter examines data describing the time that people spend in each of the many activities that make up their day. It focuses on data from the late 1980s and early 1990s, and from the early ... More


Understanding Transatlantic Differences in Working Hours

Tito Boeri

in Working Hours and Job Sharing in the EU and USA: Are Europeans Lazy? Or Americans Crazy?

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231027
eISBN:
9780191710834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231027.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter examines the reasons behind the major gap in labour productivity between the US and Europe. In Europe, there are both relatively fewer people at work (a lower employment to population ... More


Work‐Sharing, Part‐Time Employment, and Childcare

Francis Kramarz, Pierre Cahuc, Bruno Crépon, Oskar Nordstörm Skans, Thorsten Schank, Gijsbert van Lomwel, and André Zylberberg

in Working Hours and Job Sharing in the EU and USA: Are Europeans Lazy? Or Americans Crazy?

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231027
eISBN:
9780191710834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231027.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter gives an overview of how work-sharing was implemented in the Netherlands. It shows that its employment effects were limited. However, work-sharing in the early 1980s was responsible for ... More


Chapter Chapter Developments in Phased Retirement

Robert Hutchens and Kerry L. Papps

in Reinventing the Retirement Paradigm

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199284603
eISBN:
9780191603013
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199284601.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter explores why employers might permit phased retirement only after employees officially retire. This issue is addressed based on interviews with close to 1,000 establishments regarding ... More


The Rise of Labor Productivity

Casey B. Mulligan

in The Redistribution Recession: How Labor Market Distortions Contracted the Economy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199942213
eISBN:
9780199980772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199942213.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

During the recession of 2008–9, labor hours fell sharply, while wages and output per hour rose. Some, but not all, of the productivity and wage increase can be attributed to changing quality of the ... More


Working Hours and Job Sharing in the EU and USA: Are Europeans Lazy? Or Americans Crazy?

Tito Boeri, Michael Burda, and Francis Kramarz (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231027
eISBN:
9780191710834
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231027.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

In the last fifty years, the gap in labour productivity between Europe and the US has narrowed considerably with estimates in 2005 suggesting a EU-US labour productivity gap of about 5%. Yet, average ... More


Changes to the Employment and Treatment of Regular Employees

Marcus Rebick

in The Japanese Employment System: Adapting to a New Economic Environment

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199247240
eISBN:
9780191602566
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199247242.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

Examines changes that have been taking place in the treatment of regular full-time workers in Japan. Among the developments examined are the introduction of performance-related pay, flattening of the ... More


Taxation and Work Incentives

A. B. Atkinson

in Public Economics in Action: The Basic Income/Flat Tax Proposal

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292166
eISBN:
9780191595875
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292163.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Tax reforms can potentially affect work decisions. This chapter examines the sources of empirical evidence about different dimensions of labour supply.


The Presses

Clive Griffin

in Journeymen-Printers, Heresy, and the Inquisition in Sixteenth-Century Spain

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199280735
eISBN:
9780191712920
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280735.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

This chapter investigates what the inquisitional archives reveal about 16th-century Spanish presses. Working practices and hours, accommodation, the roles of slaves, apprentices, learned correctores ... More


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