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Stereotypes Have Been Stereotyped!

Lee Jussim

in Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195366600
eISBN:
9780199933044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366600.003.0076
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter captures and summarizes some of the major themes and implications of the prior four chapters on stereotypes: It highlights the broad and general conclusions, based on the scientific, ... More


The Wisdom of Which Crowd? On the Pathology of a Digital Democracy Initiative for a Listening Government

Stephen Coleman and Jay G. Blumler

in Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing Our Lives

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199661992
eISBN:
9780191782671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661992.003.0013
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

Early use of the Internet demonstrated that it was possible to tap the expertise of many people rapidly, simply by asking. Over time a variety of platforms have been built to aggregate the so-called ... More


Collective Intelligence: Crowd Wisdom versus Herding

Andreas Engert

in Theories of Choice: The Social Science and the Law of Decision Making

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780198863175
eISBN:
9780191895678
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863175.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

The chapter provides an introduction to the social science of ‘collective intelligence’, the aggregation of individual judgments for purposes of collective decision making. It starts from the basic ... More


Can Real Social Epistemic Networks Deliver the Wisdom of Crowds?

Emily Sullivan, Max Sondag, Ignaz Rutter, Wouter Meulemans, Scott Cunningham, Bettina Speckmann, and Mark Alfano

in Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy Volume 3

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780198852407
eISBN:
9780191886867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198852407.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Moral Philosophy

Most experimental philosophy employs small-N studies with randomization. Additional light may be shed on philosophical questions by large-scale observational studies that employ Big Data ... More


Decision-Making Pathologies

Derek A. Epp

in The Structure of Policy Change

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226529691
eISBN:
9780226529868
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226529868.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter describes the difference between deliberative and collective decision-making procedures. Collective decision making takes place when the decisions of many independent actors are ... More


Making the most of individual differences in joint decisions

Bahador Bahrami

in Metacognitive Diversity: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198789710
eISBN:
9780191841675
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789710.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

Evidence for and against the idea that “two heads are better than one” is abundant. This chapter considers the contextual conditions and social norms that predict madness or wisdom of crowds to ... More


The Structure of Policy Change

Derek A. Epp

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226529691
eISBN:
9780226529868
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226529868.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This book explores how public policies change over time. Its central argument is that when lawmakers can process information more comprehensively, then they can react more smoothly to environmental ... More


The Concept of Herd Behaviour: Its Psychological and Neural Underpinnings

Tatsuya Kameda, Keigo Inukai, Thomas Wisdom, and Wataru Toyokawa

in Contract Governance: Dimensions in Law and Interdisciplinary Research

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780198723202
eISBN:
9780191790294
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723202.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law, Comparative Law

Herding is a key concept underlying various collective phenomena in an increasingly connected world, such as the recent global financial crisis and the spread of civil uprisings in the Middle East. ... More


Comparison, ranking, rating, and lists

Péter Érdi

in Ranking: The Unwritten Rules of the Social Game We All Play

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780190935467
eISBN:
9780190935498
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190935467.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In this chapter, four basic concepts—comparison, ranking, rating, and lists—are introduced, and a number of questions are discussed. Why do we compare ourselves with others? Is comparison the “thief ... More


Plato against Democracy: A Defense

Richard Kraut

in Virtue, Happiness, Knowledge: Themes from the Work of Gail Fine and Terence Irwin

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198817277
eISBN:
9780191858796
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817277.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This essay examines the Republic’s most important argument against democracy, and claims that it remains, even amidst the dominance of democratic theory, a powerful critique not only of Athenian ... More


Invisible-Hand Explanations

Edna Ullmann-Margalit

in Normal Rationality: Decisions and Social Order

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198802433
eISBN:
9780191840753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198802433.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Invisible-hand explanations suggest that many social practices are a product of human action, but not human design. In coming to terms with such explanations, it is essential to distinguish between ... More


Introduction

Robert E. Goodin and Kai Spiekermann

in An Epistemic Theory of Democracy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780198823452
eISBN:
9780191862137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198823452.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization, Political Theory

If it lacks minimal competence to track the truth, good government is impossible. Even though a lot of dispersed information is available that would help to make competent decisions, governments can ... More


Prologue: My early encounters with ranking

Péter Érdi

in Ranking: The Unwritten Rules of the Social Game We All Play

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780190935467
eISBN:
9780190935498
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190935467.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The book begins with three personal stories about the author’s early encounters with comparison, rating, and ranking. The stories demonstrate that ranking might reflect the reality of objectivity in ... More


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