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“This Fundamental Problem”: MacArthur Saves Hirohito

Ray A. Moore and Donald L. Robinson

in Partners for Democracy: Crafting the New Japanese State Under MacArthur

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195151169
eISBN:
9780199833917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515116X.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Describes how MacArthur in late 1945 and early 1946 saved Hirohito from trial as a war criminal. Contacted by imperial advisers, MacArthur became convinced that Hirohito would cooperate in ... More


Public Order and Internal Security

Richard Caplan

in International Governance of War-Torn Territories: Rule and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199263455
eISBN:
9780191602726
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263450.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Public order and internal security are the sine qua non of civil rule and, by extension, of the international administration of a territory. Examines international engagement in relation to the triad ... More


Shaping the Trials: The Politics of Trial Policy, 1945–1949

Donald Bloxham

in Genocide on Trial: War Crimes Trials and the Formation of Holocaust History and Memory

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198208723
eISBN:
9780191717017
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198208723.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter studies the prosecution of prominent war criminals within the context of the broader trial policy of the British and Americans. It brings out the distinctly American flavour of the ... More


The “Statement on Atrocities” of the Moscow Tripartite Conference: (December 10, 1943)

Otto Kircheimer

John Herz (ed.)

in Secret Reports on Nazi Germany: The Frankfurt School Contribution to the War Effort

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134130
eISBN:
9781400846467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134130.003.0026
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter focuses on the “Statement on Atrocities,” which contains a joint declaration concerning war crimes and war criminals. Issued by the Tripartite Conference over the signatures of U.S. ... More


Problems Concerning the Treatment of War Criminals: (September 25,1944)

Franz Neumann

in Secret Reports on Nazi Germany: The Frankfurt School Contribution to the War Effort

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134130
eISBN:
9781400846467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134130.003.0027
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter discusses problems concerning the treatment of war criminals. The report explains that the United Nations have announced as one of their major war aims the prosecution and punishment of ... More


Post-trial: Repatriation of War Criminals

Dean Aszkielowicz

in The Australian Pursuit of Japanese War Criminals, 1943-1957: From Foe to Friend

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9789888390724
eISBN:
9789888390427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888390724.003.0008
Subject:
History, Asian History

Australia’s trials ended in April 1951, and just a few months later in September, the San Francisco Peace Treaty signalled that the Occupation would end the following year and Japan would return to ... More


Unimaginable Atrocities: Justice, Politics, and Rights at the War Crimes Tribunals

William Schabas

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199653072
eISBN:
9780191739361
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199653072.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

As international criminal courts and tribunals have proliferated and international criminal law is increasingly seen as a key tool for bringing the world's worst perpetrators to account, the ... More


The Crisis and Liquidation of the Military Justicia al Revés System in the 1940s

JULIUS RUIZ

in Franco's Justice: Repression in Madrid after the Spanish Civil War

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199281831
eISBN:
9780191712999
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199281831.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter discusses how the regime confronted the inevitable consequences of inverse military justice. It argues that from 1940 the regime increasingly saw the prosecution of civil war criminal ... More


The Background of the Trial

Neil Boister and Robert Cryer

in The Tokyo International Military Tribunal - A Reappraisal

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199278527
eISBN:
9780191706950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278527.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

The Tokyo IMT cannot be understood without some grasp of the internal politics of pre-war Japan and their impact on Japan's foreign relations up to and during to the Asia-Pacific War. With an ... More


The Installation of Military Justice in Madrid

JULIUS RUIZ

in Franco's Justice: Repression in Madrid after the Spanish Civil War

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199281831
eISBN:
9780191712999
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199281831.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter examines the repressive jurisdiction that prosecuted civil war criminal ‘responsibilities’ — the military justice system. It traces the historical reasons why the military could arrogate ... More


Charges of Crimes Against Peace Arising Out of the Second World War

Ian Brownlie

in International Law and the Use of Force by States

Published in print:
1963
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198251583
eISBN:
9780191681332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198251583.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter discusses the charges of crimes against peace arising out of the Second World War. It begins with the trial of German major war criminals. Defence criticisms of the counts relating to ... More


Aftermath

Kevin Jon Heller

in The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199554317
eISBN:
9780191728624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554317.003.0016
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter explores the aftermath of the twelve Nuremberg Military Tribunal (NMT) trials. Section 1 recounts the events that preceded John J. McCloy's appointment as High Commission of Germany in ... More


The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Jussi M. Hanhimaki

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Henry Kissinger dominated American foreign relations like no other figure in recent history. He negotiated an end to American involvement in the Vietnam War, opened relations with Communist China, ... More


Krupp: A History of the Legendary German Firm

Harold James

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691153407
eISBN:
9781400841868
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691153407.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The history of Krupp is the history of modern Germany. No company symbolized the best and worst of that history more than the famous steel and arms maker. This book tells the story of the Krupp ... More


The Australian Pursuit of Japanese War Criminals, 1943-1957: From Foe to Friend

Dean Aszkielowicz

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9789888390724
eISBN:
9789888390427
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888390724.001.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

After the Second World War, the Australian military prosecuted almost a thousand alleged Japanese war criminals. These prosecutions were not only an attempt to punish Japan for its wartime ... More


Conclusion

Kevin Jon Heller

in The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199554317
eISBN:
9780191728624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554317.003.0018
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This concluding chapter ends the book by summarizing the lessons of the previous chapters and asking whether the trials were successful. It covers issues such as retributive justice, documentary ... More


Japan’s Imperial Veterans

Sheila A. Smith

in Intimate Rivals: Japanese Domestic Politics and a Rising China

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231167888
eISBN:
9780231538022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231167888.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter discusses the controversies surrounding the Yasukuni Shrine. Firstly, was the frustration among Japan's conservatives with what many saw as Chinese intervention in the effort to ... More


Justice for ‘Asian’ Victims: The Australian War Crimes Trials of the Japanese, 1945–51

Narrelle Morris

in The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199671144
eISBN:
9780191751516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671144.003.0017
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Legal History

This chapter examines the Australian war crimes trials from 1945 to 1951. Specifically, it considers the odd Australian statutory jurisdiction based on classes of victims that enabled some Asian ... More


The Crime of Aggression: From the Trial of Takashi Sakai, August 1946, to the Kampala Review Conference on the ICC in 2010

Roger S. Clark

in The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199671144
eISBN:
9780191751516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671144.003.0019
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Legal History

This chapter turns to the August 1946 trial of the Japanese general — Takashi Sakai — by a domestic tribunal in Nanking, the Republic of China, in order to reflect on the meaning of the concept of a ... More


Human Rights and International Criminal Law

in The Perils of Global Legalism

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226675749
eISBN:
9780226675923
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226675923.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

In the twentieth century, both international criminal law and international human rights law were greatly expanded. International criminal law has come to refer to a set of international crimes, ... More


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