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Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Armando Francesco Borghesani

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In liquid helium, an electron is surrounded by a cavity called an electron bubble of 20 Ångstroms in diameter. A positive helium ion is solvated by an electrostriction induced solid helium-ice shell ... More


Coherent X-Ray Optics

David Paganin

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567288
eISBN:
9780191717963
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567288.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This book offers a grounding in the field of coherent X-ray optics, which in the closing years of the 20th century experienced something of a renaissance with the availability of third-generation ... More


VORTEX HYDRODYNAMICS

A.F. Borghesani

in Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter deals with the discovery that ions interact with hydrodynamic structures of the superfluid in a way that can be explained only by assuming that the flow patterns in the superfluid are ... More


Theory of Nonequilibrium Superconductivity

Nikolai Kopnin

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198507888
eISBN:
9780191709722
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507888.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book presents modern theory of nonstationary and nonequilibrium superconductivity. It deals with superconductors in external fields varying in time and studies transport phenomena in ... More


Instability of The Homogeneous Cooling State

Nikolai V. Brilliantov and Thorsten Pöschel

in Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198530381
eISBN:
9780191713057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530381.003.0024
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The homogeneous cooling state of a granular gas is inherently unstable. The formation of vortices and clusters can by explained qualitatively by simple arguments. This chapter derives a set of ... More


MOTION OF IONS ALONG LINEAR VORTICES

A.F. Borghesani

in Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Ions and electron bubbles are captured by the vortex lines which occur in a rotating superfluid sample. Once captured, however, the charges can move along the quantized vortex lines. On one hand, ... More


Singular X-ray optics

David M. Paganin

in Coherent X-Ray Optics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567288
eISBN:
9780191717963
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567288.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter acquaints the reader with the nascent field of singular X-ray optics, dealing with the singularities of X-ray wave fields, particularly phase singularities (phase vortices). The concept ... More


Vortices In 3He-B

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses the topology of singular topological defects — defects with singular core of coherence length size — in 3He-B and in quantum chromodynamics, such as conventional mass vortices, ... More


SUPERFLUIDITY AND CHARGE CARRIERS

A.F. Borghesani

in Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter briefly summarizes the main features of superfluid helium. The Landau velocity criterion for the onset of superfluidity is discussed, and the spectrum of the elementary excitations is ... More


ION TRANSPORT AT INTERMEDIATE FIELDS AT LOW PRESSURE

A.F. Borghesani

in Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

At higher electric fields, the drifting ions are not in thermal equilibrium with the gas of the elementary excitations of the superfluid, and the mobility depends on the field. This chapter presents ... More


MOTION OF CHARGED QUANTIZED VORTEX RINGS IN SUPERFLUID HE II

A.F. Borghesani

in Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the motion of charged quantized vortex rings in superfluid He II. The experimental results are presented and discussed. The striking behavior of the energy-velocity ... More


ION TRANSPORT IN SUPERFLUID 3HE

A.F. Borghesani

in Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.003.0024
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

For T < 2.73 mK, liquid 3He becomes superfluid because of the formation of atomic Cooper pairs. The Pauli exclusion principle keeps atoms at a distance from each other so that the pair has non ... More


FLUCTUATIONS IN VORTEX STRUCTURES

Anatoly Larkin and Andrei Varlamov

in Theory of Fluctuations in Superconductors

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528159
eISBN:
9780191713521
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528159.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The effect of two different types of fluctuations on the properties of the vortex state of type-II superconductors is discussed. The first are the time-independent structure fluctuations (quenched ... More


Aerodynamics

John J. Videler

in Avian Flight

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199299928
eISBN:
9780191714924
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299928.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

Main forces on a flying bird are lift, weight, thrust, and drag. Quantitative visualization of the flow shows how these forces result from the interactions between bird and air. Conventional flow ... More


Continuous Structures

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

When several distinct energy scales are involved, the vacuum symmetry is different for different length scales: the larger the length scale, the more the symmetry is reduced. The interplay of ... More


Time-Dependent Ginzburg–Landau Analysis

Nikolai B. Kopnin

in Theory of Nonequilibrium Superconductivity

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198507888
eISBN:
9780191709722
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507888.003.12
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter considers vortex dynamics within the frameworks of the conventional and generalized TDGL models. The forces (the Lorenz force and the force from environment) acting on a moving vortex ... More


Vortex Dynamics in Clean Superconductors

Nikolai B. Kopnin

in Theory of Nonequilibrium Superconductivity

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198507888
eISBN:
9780191709722
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507888.003.14
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The general features of the vortex dynamics in clean superconductors are first discussed using the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The conditions when the dissipative dynamics of vortices transforms into ... More


Minimalist Approaches to Figurative Maze Design

Robert Bosch, Tim Chartier, and Michael Rowan

in The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects: Research in Recreational Math

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691164038
eISBN:
9781400881338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164038.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter demonstrates that simple mathematical methods can be used to design mazes that resemble user-supplied target images. The first approach discussed here is the TSP method, which involves ... More


Symmetry Breaking In 3He-A And Singular Vortices

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The symmetry breaking pattern in A-phase of 3He is similar to that in electroweak phase transition. This chapter discusses the topology of singular topological defects in 3He-A and in analogous ... More


Spectral Flow in The Vortex Core

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0025
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

There are four forces acting on a vortex moving with respect to normal and superfluid components of the liquid: three reactive forces (Magnus, Iordanskii, and Kopnin forces) and the Stokes friction ... More


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