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Brain Enhancement and Other Magical Beliefs

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

No drugs or nutrients are currently available that can reverse the primary cause of cognitive decline: normal aging. Also, it is currently impossible to enhance the function of a normal brain. These ... More


The Anatomy of Famine

L. A. Clarkson and E. Margaret Crawford

in Feast and Famine: Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500-1920

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198227519
eISBN:
9780191708374
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198227519.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, British and Irish Modern History

Famine brings with it starvation, fevers, dysentery and diarrhoea, the collapse of family and community life, and chronic misery. Commentators from Edward Spenser in the 1590s to William Wilde in ... More


Building an ‘A 1 Nation’: Health and Life Reform in the 1920s

Ina Zweiniger‐Bargielowska

in Managing the Body: Beauty, Health, and Fitness in Britain 1880-1939

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199280520
eISBN:
9780191594878
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280520.003.0005
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

The dysgenic disaster of the First World War compounded anxieties about physical deterioration. Sir George Newman, Chief Medical Officer at the new Ministry of Health, advocated health education as ... More


The More Things Change: A Historical Perspective on the Debate over Vitamin Advertising in the United States

Rima D. Apple

in Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth Century America

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150698
eISBN:
9780199865185
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150698.003.09
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Vitamin supplements have been popular from the time the micronutrients were discovered in the early 20th century. Popular news media and advertisements promoted vitamins as crucial for two critical ... More


Economic evaluations of interventions for children in the developing world: The WHO-CHOICE approach

Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer, Moses Aikins, Robert Black, Lara Wolfson, Raymond Hutubessy, and David B. Evans

in Economic Evaluation in Child Health

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199547494
eISBN:
9780191720055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547494.003.13
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

There are logistical and analytical challenges when conducting economic evaluations in the developing world, ranging from lack of data on costs to determining generalizability. This chapter describes ... More


Application to Biomolecular Systems

Wai-yim Ching and Paul Rulis

in Electronic Structure Methods for Complex Materials: The orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199575800
eISBN:
9780191740992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575800.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Biomolecular systems are inarguably among the most complex of all known materials systems. An atomic and molecular approach is rapidly become the norm for fundamental research in the life sciences ... More


The Impact of Improved Nutrition on Disease Prevention

Richard D. Semba

in Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth Century America

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150698
eISBN:
9780199865185
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150698.003.08
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

In the 20th century, major progress was made in the near elimination of many nutritional deficiencies disorders in the United States such as rickets, pellagra, iodine deficiency, infantile scurvy, ... More


Log-Linear Model (Poisson Model Applied to Tabular Data)

Steve Selvin

in Epidemiologic Analysis: A Case-Oriented Approach

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195146189
eISBN:
9780199864720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146189.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the influence of vitamin use on the risk of a neural tube birth defect while accounting for possible differences associated with race/ethnicity. Using a loglinear model, the ... More


Antioxidants and cardiovascular disease

E. R. Miller III and L. J. Appel

in Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From aetiology to public health

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198525738
eISBN:
9780191724114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525738.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Antioxidant vitamin supplements are regularly consumed by over one-third of all adults in the United States. While the health benefits of vitamin supplements are unproven, many lay persons and health ... More


Vitamin A and Lung Cancer

Walter Willett

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195122978
eISBN:
9780199864249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195122978.003.15
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews studies on the link between vitamin A and lung cancer. These include prospective studies, case-control studies, studies of blood vitamin A levels and risk of lung cancer, nested ... More


Multiple Sclerosis

Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, and Valerie M. McGuire

in Neuroepidemiology: From principles to practice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195133790
eISBN:
9780199863730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.003.08
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides information on the epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common disabling neurological disease in young adults. It describes the clinical and pathologic features of ... More


Vitamin A and other vitamin deficiencies

Felicity Savage King and Ann Burgess

in Nutrition for Developing Countries

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622334
eISBN:
9780191723643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622334.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which is one of the most important diseases in children because it can damage the eye and cause blindness, and may increase the risk of infection ... More


Micronutrients and water

Felicity Savage King and Ann Burgess

in Nutrition for Developing Countries

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622334
eISBN:
9780191723643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622334.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the importance of micronutrients and water. Topics covered include vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folate, minerals, iron, iodine, fluoride, zinc, sodium and ... More


Prostate Cancer

Lorelei A. Mucci, Lisa B. Signorello, and Hans-Olov Adami

in Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195311174
eISBN:
9780199865093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311174.003.0020
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Since prostate cancer began to attract more epidemiologic interest in the 1980s, numerous etiologic clues have been identified, and areas are now emerging as promising in the search for causes of ... More


Somatic, Psychic, Psychosomatic: The Medicine of Troubled Appetite

Elizabeth A. Williams

in Appetite and Its Discontents: Science, Medicine, and the Urge to Eat, 1750-1950

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226692999
eISBN:
9780226693187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226693187.003.0017
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Chapter 12 examines investigation of ills of appetite and eating between 1900 and 1950. Around 1900, hopes ran high that the tools of scientific medicine would clarify these ills, but disagreements ... More


Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Barry Halliwell and John M. C. Gutteridge

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780198717478
eISBN:
9780191802133
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717478.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

The new edition of this well-established book is thoroughly revised and gives a comprehensive account of the role of free radicals, other reactive species (RS), and antioxidants in life, health, and ... More


Case study 3: mandatory milk fortification with vitamin D

Mark Lawrence

in Food Fortification: The evidence, ethics, and politics of adding nutrients to food

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199691975
eISBN:
9780191748806
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691975.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Mandatory milk fortification with vitamin D (MMFVD) is a public health policy intervention for reducing vitamin D deficiency among the population. It was the case study selected to assess and analyse ... More


Tyrosinemia

Francjan van Spronsen and Margreet van Rijn

in Pediatric and Adult Nutrition in Chronic Diseases, Developmental Disabilities, and Hereditary Metabolic Disorders: Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780199398911
eISBN:
9780199398942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199398911.003.0040
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter discusses tyrosinemia, including the biochemical and clinical abnormalities associated with tyrosinemia type I, tyrosinemia type II, tyrosinemia type III, hawkinsinuria, and ... More


Nutritional Aspects of Birth Defects

Howard M. Saal

in Pediatric and Adult Nutrition in Chronic Diseases, Developmental Disabilities, and Hereditary Metabolic Disorders: Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780199398911
eISBN:
9780199398942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199398911.003.0060
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter discusses nutritional aspects of birth defects, including physical, biochemical, and other abnormalities; nutritional factors (specifically of neural tube defects); and nutritional ... More


Vitamin A and Lung Cancer

Walter Willett and Graham Colditz

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199754038
eISBN:
9780199979448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199754038.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Vitamin A has long been recognized to play a central physiologic role in the regulation of cell differentiation. Because loss of differentiation is a basic feature of malignancy, vitamin A may be ... More


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