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Consensus Democracy: Pacification and Accommodation

Frank Hendriks

in Vital Democracy: A Theory of Democracy in Action

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199572786
eISBN:
9780191722370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572786.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Theory

Consensus democracy refers to a general model of integrative‐indirect democracy, a specific version of which can be found in countries like the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria. ... More


Kinetic Coefficients and Velocity Distribution for Gases of Elastic Particles

Nikolai V. Brilliantov and Thorsten Pöschel

in Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198530381
eISBN:
9780191713057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530381.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter applies the Chapman–Enskog approach to an inhomogeneous gas of elastic particles. It derives the coefficients of viscosity, thermal conductivity, and velocity distribution function.


LUBRICATION

C. Mathew Mate

in Tribology on the Small Scale: A Bottom Up Approach to Friction, Lubrication, and Wear

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198526780
eISBN:
9780191712098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526780.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

For situations where high friction is not explicitly needed, lubricants are used to reduce friction and wear to acceptable levels. Lubricants function mainly by introducing a layer of material with ... More


LUBRICATION IN TIGHT SPOTS

C. Mathew Mate

in Tribology on the Small Scale: A Bottom Up Approach to Friction, Lubrication, and Wear

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198526780
eISBN:
9780191712098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526780.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the interesting phenomena that occurs when the thickness of a lubricant film is reduced to nanoscale dimensions. For liquid lubricants sandwiched between two solid surfaces, ... More


FLUID SYSTEMS

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses fluid systems. Topics covered include the liquid state, viscosity of liquids, solubility, solutions of electrolytes in water, electrical conductivity of solutions, and aqueous ... More


Transport and Relaxation in Quasi-Equilibrium Regimes: Pure Gases

Raymond Brun

in Introduction to Reactive Gas Dynamics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199552689
eISBN:
9780191720277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552689.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter expands the distribution function of a pure gas in a series of a small parameter representing the ratio of the collisional time to a reference flow time; this is the so-called ... More


Transport and Relaxation in Quasi-Equilibrium Regimes: Gas Mixtures

Raymond Brun

in Introduction to Reactive Gas Dynamics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199552689
eISBN:
9780191720277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552689.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter extends the Chapman-Enskog method to binary gas mixtures in equilibrium at the zero order of the distribution function. It examines monatomic gas mixtures then diatomic gases possessing ... More


Transport properties in gases

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter describes how a gas can transport momentum, energy, or particles from one place to another. It considers non-equilibrium situations, but still in the steady state, i.e., so that the ... More


Flows of Viscous Incompressible Fluids

J. N. REDDY

in An Introduction to Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525295
eISBN:
9780191711671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525295.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Fluid mechanics is concerned with the motion of gases and liquids and their interaction with the surroundings. A fluid can either be inviscid (the viscosity is assumed to be zero) or incompressible ... More


Time-Dependent Ginzburg–Landau Analysis

Nikolai B. Kopnin

in Theory of Nonequilibrium Superconductivity

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198507888
eISBN:
9780191709722
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507888.003.12
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter considers vortex dynamics within the frameworks of the conventional and generalized TDGL models. The forces (the Lorenz force and the force from environment) acting on a moving vortex ... More


Magnetization dynamics

Ralph Skomski

in Simple Models of Magnetism

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570752
eISBN:
9780191718816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570752.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The nonequilibrium character of magnetisation processes means that magnetisation processes are time-dependent, even if the external magnetic field is kept constant. Intrinsic magnetic properties, ... More


Transport properties

E. R. DOBBS

in Helium Three

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198506409
eISBN:
9780191709463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506409.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter first outlines Fermi liquid theory for the transport coefficients of viscosity, η, thermal conductivity λ, and spin diffusion D. It then shows how far various approximations in the ... More


EINSTEIN–SMOLUCHOWSKI THEORY

Robert M. Mazo

in Brownian Motion: Fluctuations, Dynamics, and Applications

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199556441
eISBN:
9780191705625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556441.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter begins the study of the physical study of Brownian motion. The theory of Smoluchowski is based on a kinetic model of colliding spheres, at first for an ambient dilute gaseous medium. ... More


Properties of spin-polarized solutions

E. R. DOBBS

in Helium Three

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198506409
eISBN:
9780191709463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506409.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the properties of spin-polarized solutions. Topics covered include second sound, viscosity, spin dynamics of dilute solutions, spin dynamics of denser solutions, multiple spin ... More


POLYMER SOLUTIONS

Robert M. Mazo

in Brownian Motion: Fluctuations, Dynamics, and Applications

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199556441
eISBN:
9780191705625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556441.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter treats the application of Smoluchowski theory to transport processes in dilute solutions of polymers. The Rouse model is introduced and the Rouse–Zimm theory for treating its properties ... More


Turbulent flows

D. Violeau

in Fluid Mechanics and the SPH Method: Theory and Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199655526
eISBN:
9780191741227
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199655526.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Turbulence is here envisaged from a mechanical viewpoint, investigating the behaviour of non-linear dynamical systems in the phase space, from the considerations of Chapters 1 and 2 extended to ... More


Chain dynamics

C. M. Roland

in Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199571574
eISBN:
9780191728976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The slow dynamics of polymer chains involves extended spatial scales, exceeding many repeat units and making the behavior largely independent of chemical structure. This universality allows modeling ... More


The Physics of Light in Air and Water

Ronald H. H. Kröger

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the visual systems of aquatic animals. It examines the physics of light and describes the physical factors influencing vision in air and water. It also discusses absorption and ... More


Viscosity

Takamichi Iida and Roderick I.L. Guthrie

in The Thermophysical Properties of Metallic Liquids: Volume 1 — Fundamentals

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780198729839
eISBN:
9780191796654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198729839.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses theoretical equations and models for analysing the viscosity of metallic liquids. It considers semi-empirical or semi-theoretical equations for viscosity; viscosity equation in ... More


Elastic soft matter

Masao Doi

in Soft Matter Physics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199652952
eISBN:
9780191774942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652952.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Elastic soft matter typically indicates rubbers and gels, which are made by introducing small amount of cross-links among polymer chains in liquid state (solutions and melts). In elastic materials, ... More


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