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Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Richard Sole and Santiago F. Elena

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Viruses are everywhere, infecting all sorts of living organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the largest mammals. Many are harmful parasites, but viruses also play a major role as drivers of our ... More


Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts

Joshua S. Weitz

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161549
eISBN:
9781400873968
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161549.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

When we think about viruses we tend to consider ones that afflict humans—such as those that cause influenza, HIV, and Ebola. Yet, vastly more viruses infect single-celled microbes. Diverse and ... More


AS NATURAL AS BREATHING: The Flu Virus

Jaap Goudsmit

in Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195130348
eISBN:
9780199790166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130348.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses the flu virus. The virus that causes the annual epidemics of influenza travels through the air. Although flu is widely viewed as a human disease, its agent is by nature a virus ... More


TAKING CHANCES WITH SEX: The Herpes and Papova Viruses

Jaap Goudsmit

in Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195130348
eISBN:
9780199790166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130348.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses herpes viruses, focusing on the herpes simplex virus (HSV), which causes painful but fleeting sores; the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the cause of mononucleosis; and the human ... More


Ocean Viruses: On Their Abundance, Diversity, and Target Hosts

Joshua S. Weitz

in Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161549
eISBN:
9781400873968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161549.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter introduces the theoretical and modeling approaches necessary to estimate (i) viral abundance, (ii) viral diversity, and (iii) virus–host interactions. Viruses are extremely abundant in ... More


Genetically Modified Pathogens

William R. Clark

in Bracing for Armageddon?: The Science and Politics of Bioterrorism in America

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195336214
eISBN:
9780199868537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336214.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

It is likely that within not too many years, we will have effectively neutralized most if not all of the CDC A-list agents as potential bioterror weapons. But for some time now scientists have been ... More


 Nonreproductive Health Issues

Mary Briody Mahowald

in Bioethics and Women: Across the Lifespan

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195176179
eISBN:
9780199786558
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195176170.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy

Cases illustrating variables that arise in the health care of women who are HIV positive or have AIDS, women with breast or gynecological cancer, and the use of hormone replacement therapy for ... More


WARRING AGAINST HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS: Smallpox, Monkeypox, and Others

Jaap Goudsmit

in Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195130348
eISBN:
9780199790166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130348.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses viral infections existing efforts to eradicate viruses. Topics covered include smallpox, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, rabbit poxvirus, and monkeypox.


Population Dynamics of Viruses and Microbes

Joshua S. Weitz

in Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161549
eISBN:
9781400873968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161549.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses how virus–host interactions affect population dynamics. Models of virus–host interactions suggest that long-term persistence between a single virus population and a single host ... More


Evolutionary Dynamics of Viruses or Microbes, but Not Both

Joshua S. Weitz

in Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161549
eISBN:
9781400873968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161549.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the evolutionary dynamics of viruses. Preexisting variation in host phenotypes include variants with different levels of susceptibility to viruses, including complete ... More


Coevolutionary Dynamics of Viruses and Microbes

Joshua S. Weitz

in Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161549
eISBN:
9781400873968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161549.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and microbes. Virus mutation and host mutations occur rapidly, so much so that new virus and host mutants are expected to arise on timescales ... More


Virus-Host Dynamics in a Complex Milieu

Joshua S. Weitz

in Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161549
eISBN:
9781400873968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161549.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter introduces a series of dynamic models for exploring the mechanisms underlying the emergent features of complex ecosystems. Models of complex food webs including viral parasites reflect ... More


Virus crystallography

Elizabeth E. Fry, Nicola G. A. Abrescia, and David I. Stuart

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses all aspects of the methodology used to solve isometric virus structures with separate case study examples for two demanding examples, the blue tongue virus core (BTV) and ... More


Viral Phylogeny and Human Migration in the Southwest Pacific

Jill Czarnecki, Jonathan S. Friedlaender, and Gerald Stoner

in Population Genetics, Linguistics, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195300307
eISBN:
9780199790142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300307.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Viruses are providing additional insights into human contacts throughout the region. This is particularly true for viruses that infect many people, have low rates of re-infection, and remain in the ... More


Emergent Viruses

Ricard Solé and Santiago F. Elena

in Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the emergence of new pathogenic viruses due to human-driven changes. A virus can be defined as “emerging” if it meets one or more of the following conditions: an already known ... More


Computer Viruses and Beyond

Ricard Solé and Santiago F. Elena

in Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The previous chapters considered the multiple facets of viruses, their structure and evolution, and how they explore their landscapes, strongly influencing the biosphere and the evolution of humans ... More


Heterotrophic microbial processes in polar lakes

John E. Hobbie and Johanna Laybourn-Parry

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter examines the activities of heterotrophic microbes (bacteria, flagellates, and ciliated protozoans) in Antarctic continental lakes and Arctic lakes and ponds (Europe, Asia, North America, ... More


The Virosphere

Ricard Solé and Santiago F. Elena

in Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter presents an introduction to viruses. Viruses have played a major role not only in evolutionary history but also in recent history. They have shaped human genomes and physiological ... More


Landscapes

Ricard Solé and Santiago F. Elena

in Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter begins by discussing fitness landscape, an idea first introduced by evolutionary geneticist Sewall Wright and later extended by several other authors. The fitness landscape is defined in ... More


Origins

Ricard Solé and Santiago F. Elena

in Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The two most controversial questions in evolutionary virology are about the origin of viruses and whether viruses are alive or not. No consensus has been reach among researchers for either of them. ... More


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