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Co-evolution

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Members of a different species may be enemies, such as predators and parasites, or friends, such as mutualists. The linked evolutionary dynamics of strongly interacting species can be complex, and ... More


The evolution and expression of virulence

Dieter Ebert and James J. Bull

in Evolution in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199207466
eISBN:
9780191728167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207466.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reviews the evolution of pathogen virulence. The evolution of virulence has 3 phases. Phase 1: the first contact of host and parasite, as in accidental infections. Phase 2: the evolution ... More


Pathogen evolution in a vaccinated world

Andrew F. Read and Margaret J. Mackinnon

in Evolution in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199207466
eISBN:
9780191728167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207466.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Vaccines alter the immune landscape experienced by pathogens, and hence their evolution, by targeting subsets of strains in a population, reducing the number of fully susceptible individuals, and ... More


Diversity and characteristics of primate parasites

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the biological features of major groups of parasites and links these features to specific aspects of disease risk in primates. It identifies the parasite characteristics that are ... More


Evolution in Health and Disease

Stephen C. Stearns and Jacob C. Koella (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199207466
eISBN:
9780191728167
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207466.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

It is now increasingly acknowledged that an evolutionary perspective can give us important new insights into issues central to medical research and practice. This fully revised and updated edition, ... More


Effects of lice on hosts

Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, and Kevin P. Johnson

in Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226302133
eISBN:
9780226302300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226302300.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reviews data relevant to the effects of lice on host fitness, including aspects of host condition, survival, and reproductive success. The chapter includes four nonexclusive categories: ... More


Evolution of parasites

Jacob C. Koella and Paul Turner

in Evolution in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199207466
eISBN:
9780191728167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207466.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

We need to be able to predict how virulence will evolve under various circumstances. The simplest model of the evolution of virulence, which assumes that virulence and transmission are linked and ... More


Host–pathogen coevolution

Robert L. Perlman

in Evolution and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199661718
eISBN:
9780191774720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661718.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Humans are home to a myriad of microorganisms that are known collectively as the human microbiome. Our bodies may also become infected by disease-causing organisms, or pathogens. Pathogens have ... More


Virulence

Paul Schmid-Hempel

in Evolutionary Parasitology: The Integrated Study of Infections, Immunology, Ecology, and Genetics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199229482
eISBN:
9780191774744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229482.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter first explores the different meanings of virulence, pinpointing that which is most suitable for the study of parasitic infection. The word is often used to describe the parasite’s ... More


Contemporary Zombies

Xavier Aldana Reyes

in Twenty-First-Century Gothic: An Edinburgh Companion

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9781474440929
eISBN:
9781474477024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474440929.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

Although traditionally only on the fringes of the Gothic, zombies have dominated the cultural landscape of the twenty-first century thanks to their metaphorical richness. This chapter identifies two ... More


The Biology of Bacteria

Armine Sefton

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198801740
eISBN:
9780191917158
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198801740.003.0007
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

Bacterial infections and infestations of man can be caused by both microbes and non-microbes. Microbes include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. ... More


Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

Rohma Ghani and Caoimhe Nic Fhogartaigh

in Tutorial Topics in Infection for the Combined Infection Training Programme

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198801740
eISBN:
9780191917158
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198801740.003.0038
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) can be sub-divided based on the anatomical structure(s) affected from superficial to deep. Impetigo affects ... More


Parasites discover behavioral ecology: how to manage one’s host in a complex world

Bernard D. Roitberg

in Host Manipulation by Parasites

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199642236
eISBN:
9780191774621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642236.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter develops dynamic state variable (DSV) models to predict the foraging and growth dynamics of herbivores, when healthy and when parasitized. In the model, the ‘caterpillar’ can decide ... More


Host-parasite genetics

Paul Schmid-Hempel

in Evolutionary Parasitology: The Integrated Study of Infections, Immunology, Ecology, and Genetics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199229482
eISBN:
9780191774744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229482.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter takes a deeper look into the genetics of both the host and the parasite. First, it explores the genetic architecture of host resistance, as well as several methods that are used to ... More


Does Social Exploitation within Pathogen Populations Pose an Opportunity for Novel Therapeutic Approaches?

Sam P. Brown

in Investors and Exploiters in Ecology and Economics: Principles and Applications

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036122
eISBN:
9780262339803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036122.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Bacterial virulence (damage to host) is often cooperative, with individual cells paying costs to promote collective exploitation. This chapter reviews how cooperative virulence traits offer novel ... More


Interventions to Control Damage from Infectious Disease: Integrating Ecological, Evolutionary, and Economic Perspectives

Paul W. Ewald, Markus Herrmann, Frédéric Thomas, Sam P. Brown, Philipp Heeb, Arnon Lotem, and Benjamin Roche

in Investors and Exploiters in Ecology and Economics: Principles and Applications

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036122
eISBN:
9780262339803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036122.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Human infectious disease results from many factors (e.g., human behavior, disease organisms, institutions) that often interact as opposing agents in accordance to the investor–exploiter dichotomy. ... More


Infection and pathogenesis

Paul Schmid-Hempel

in Evolutionary Parasitology: The Integrated Study of Infections, Immunology, Ecology, and Genetics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199229482
eISBN:
9780191774744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229482.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines and discusses infection and pathogenesis – which is the physiological process underlying the development of virulence (the capability of a microorganism to cause disease) in the ... More


Brood parasitism

Claire N. Spottiswoode, Rebecca M. Kilner, and Nicholas B. Davies

in The Evolution of Parental Care

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692576
eISBN:
9780191774737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692576.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Obligate brood parasites are cheats that exploit the parental care of other species to raise their young. This reproductive strategy has evolved repeatedly among taxa that provide parental care, ... More


Host–parasite interactions and climate change

Santiago Merino

in Effects of Climate Change on Birds

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198824268
eISBN:
9780191862809
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198824268.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Animal Biology

This chapter offers a review of the papers published on the effect of climate change on bird–parasite interactions from 2010 to date. Climatic effects on phenology, prevalence and intensity, range ... More


Virginity and Virulence

Dale L. Hutchinson

in Disease and Discrimination: Poverty and Pestilence in Colonial Atlantic America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780813062693
eISBN:
9780813051789
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813062693.003.0003
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

Current research on virgin soil populations, novel diseases, host pathogen coevolution, and pathogen evolution is used to show that the effect of pathogens on populations is reliant on multiple ... More


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