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Metabolism and gas exchange

Steven L. Chown and Sue W. Nicolson

in Insect Physiological Ecology: Mechanisms and Patterns

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515494
eISBN:
9780191705649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515494.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Energy is a currency common to all animals, and the suite of responses shown by insects to the environments they inhabit is dependent on the metabolism of substrates. This chapter deals largely with ... More


Basic Technical Details

M. Ramachandran

in Metro Rail Projects In India: A Study In Project Planning

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198073987
eISBN:
9780199080847
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198073987.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Urban and Rural Studies

Presenting an overview of the basic technical details related to a metro system, this chapter covers topics such as permanent way, stations, traction and power supply, signalling and train control, ... More


Neurological disorders

Wendy Johnston and Jessica Simon

in Palliative Medicine: A case-based manual

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199694143
eISBN:
9780191739255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694143.003.0103
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making

This chapter contains a number of case studies to illustrate the desired skills, attitudes, and expertise required to manage neurological disorders in palliative patients. It considers several issues ... More


Health estates

Nizam Damani

in Manual of Infection Prevention and Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199698356
eISBN:
9780191732126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698356.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The provision of a safe environment within health care premises is a statutory obligation and must be part of the risk management strategy of the hospital. The environment in which patients are ... More


Oxygen in the palliation of breathlessness

Anna Spathis, Rosemary Wade, and Sara Booth

in Dyspnoea in Advanced Disease: A guide to clinical management

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780198530039
eISBN:
9780191730450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530039.003.0012
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter discusses the use of oxygen in the palliative management of breathlessness. In the hospital setting, supplemental oxygen is commonly used in the palliation of dyspnoea. Since the primary ... More


Ethical issues in care of the dying

Thorns Andrew and Eve Garrard

in Care of the Dying: A pathway to excellence

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780199550838
eISBN:
9780191730528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550838.003.0004
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter discusses the ethical issues connected to the care of the dying: issues of hydration and nutrition, issues of ventilation, and issues relating to capacity and decision making. It looks ... More


Resuscitation and advance statements

Fiona Randall

in The Philosophy of Palliative Care: Critique and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780198567363
eISBN:
9780191730535
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567363.003.0006
Subject:
Palliative Care, Palliative Medicine Research

Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a treatment aimed at lengthening and prolonging life. Its primary aim is to restore circulation and maintain ventilation. CPR is also designed to acquire ... More


Dyspnoea in motor neurone disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)

Sam H. Ahmedzai and Martin F. Muers

in Supportive Care in Respiratory Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780192631411
eISBN:
9780191730160
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192631411.003.0019
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter examines dyspnoea associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AML). It explains that dyspnoea is a common symptom in motor neurone diseases. Opioids have been found effective in ... More


Respiratory complications

Deborah Gelinas

in Palliative Care in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: From Diagnosis to Bereavement, 3rd Edn

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199686025
eISBN:
9780191765940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686025.003.0006
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

Respiratory failure is the principal cause of death in ALS patients. Symptoms and signs must be carefully sought throughout the disease course. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and airway clearance ... More


Physiology of Nonavian Dinosaurs

Anusuya Chinsamy and Willem J. Hillenius

in The Dinosauria

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520242098
eISBN:
9780520941434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520242098.003.0031
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines the paleophysiology of nonavian dinosaurs. It describes the physiological and functional aspects of dinosaurs and focuses on two distinct physiological attributes: ... More


Respiratory responses of marine animals to environmental hypoxia

John I. Spicer

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Low O2 (hypoxia) is a natural feature of some marine environments, but is becoming more prevalent because of anthropogenic disturbance. Hypoxia is lethal for many marine species, but most animal ... More


Air and Odour: Atmospheric Investigations

William Tullett

in Smell in Eighteenth-Century England: A Social Sense

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198844136
eISBN:
9780191879760
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844136.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Social History

Starting with the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s experience of the Royal Institution lectures of 1802, this chapter sets out the relationship between smell, chemistry, and environmental medicine in ... More


Physiological Characteristics of Mammals

Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper, Shane K. Maloney, Francisco Bozinovic, and Ariovaldo P. Cruz-Neto

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780199642717
eISBN:
9780191830334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642717.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the functioning of physiological systems specifically for mammals in an ecological and environmental context. Basal, activity, and field energetics are described, then ... More


Gas exchange

Derek Burton and Margaret Burton

in Essential Fish Biology: Diversity, structure, and function

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198785552
eISBN:
9780191827433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198785552.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Animal Biology

Oxygen intake for respiration, also carbon dioxide and, generally, ammonia elimination takes place across gas-exchange surfaces, usually the gills in fish. Water flows across gills, separated by the ... More


Physiological responses of marine invertebrates to thermal stress

Nia M. Whiteley and Clara L. Mackenzie

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Marine invertebrates display a tremendous range of thermal sensitivities and thermal tolerance limits, but they can all experience thermal stress at their upper thermal limits. Such limits are shaped ... More


Therapeutic mechanisms in psychiatric music therapy

Michael J. Silverman

in Music therapy in mental health for illness management and recovery

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780198735366
eISBN:
9780191802249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198735366.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology, Health Psychology

Factors that influence therapeutic outcome in music therapy can be related to attendance and participation as well as characteristics of both the client and therapist. Researchers and clinicians have ... More


Palatial Spaces

David Kertai

in The Architecture of Late Assyrian Royal Palaces

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198723189
eISBN:
9780191789724
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723189.003.0009
Subject:
Classical Studies, Archaeology: Classical, World History: BCE to 500CE

Chapter 9 focuses on the five main types of space that can be identified in Late Assyrian royal palaces. It distinguishes between reception rooms, bathrooms, and storage spaces. These rooms ... More


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