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How valves work

David O. Clayden

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0018
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents background information on valves. A valve consists of an evacuated glass envelope containing a number of electrodes. These are connected to the outside by wires passing though ... More


Pressure‐Driven Microfluidics

Scott Miserendino and Yu‐Chong Tai

in Micro/Nano Technology Systems for Biomedical Applications: Microfluidics, Optics, and Surface Chemistry

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199219698
eISBN:
9780191594229
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219698.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Mathematical Biology

Pressure-force-driven microfluidics is the foundation for volumetric scaling into the micro regime and, hence, for unique functionalities unachievable by macro-sized devices. The physics that govern ... More


Bugles and Horns

Murray Campbell, Clive Greated, and Arnold Myers

in Musical Instruments: History, Technology, and Performance of Instruments of Western Music

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198165040
eISBN:
9780191713675
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198165040.003.0005
Subject:
Music, History, Western

This chapter describes the basic acoustical characteristics of brass instruments, including the functions of the mouthpiece, side holes, crooks, and valves. The history and development of horns made ... More


Giuffre/Brookmeyer Reunion

Williams Martin

in Jazz Changes

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195083491
eISBN:
9780199853205
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195083491.003.0011
Subject:
Music, Popular

The Jimmy Giuffre–Bob Brookmeyer Five was a short-lived endeavour for both musicians. After the split, Bob Brookmeyer spent a huge chunk of his years recording jingles, playing as accompaniment to a ... More


Spin-transfer torques and nanomagnets

Daniel C. Ralph and Robert A. Buhrman

in Concepts in Spin Electronics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568216
eISBN:
9780191718212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568216.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents simple ideas for understanding how spin-polarized currents can be used to exert spin-transfer torques in magnetic devices. The chapter reviews recent progress for measuring the ... More


Theory of spin-transfer torque and domain wall motion in magnetic nanostructures

S. E. Barnes and S. Maekawa

in Concepts in Spin Electronics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568216
eISBN:
9780191718212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568216.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter develops the theory for the dynamics of domain walls in the context of spin electronic devices. The transfer of angular momentum (torque transfer) between an electrical current and a ... More


The Epidemiology of Heart Failure

John G.F. Cleland

in Supportive Care in Heart Failure

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780198570288
eISBN:
9780191730030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570288.003.0002
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter concentrates on the state of knowledge in the epidemiology of heart failure (HF). It starts by addressing the definition, diagnosis, and cause of HF in order to understand the ... More


The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Joseph Erlanger becomes the first head of the Physiology Department at Washington University, St Louis, and appoints Herbert Gasser to his staff. Together they attempt to record nerve impulses, after ... More


The Code

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Returning from the war, Adrian continues where he and Lucas had left off. Using the capillary electrometer and Lucas’ mechanical device for correcting distortion, he demonstrates the true form of the ... More


Innovative Tissue Engineering and Its Regulation—The Search for Flexible Rules for Emerging Health Technologies

Nils Hoppe

in European Law and New Health Technologies

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199659210
eISBN:
9780191748165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659210.003.0005
Subject:
Law, EU Law, Medical Law

Advances in tissue engineering techniques have resulted in the potential for groundbreaking new health technologies for human use. A particularly promising field of tissue engineering is that of ... More


Solenogastres, Caudofoveata, and Polyplacophora

Christiane Todt, Akiko Okusu, Christoffer Schander, and Enrico Schwabe

in Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520250925
eISBN:
9780520933705
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520250925.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter explores the relationships among several molluscan classes, including, Solenogastres, Caudofoveata and Polyplacophora. It explains that Polyplacophora are pointed valves while ... More


The Pathway for Retronasal Airflow

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Neuroenology: How the Brain Creates the Taste of Wine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780231177009
eISBN:
9780231542876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231177009.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Breathing out produces its own complex retronasal airflow patterns in the nose. We show how humans are adapted for retronasal smell compared with the dog and other animals. The nose pinch test proves ... More


Khenry and Anatol

Richard A. Moss

in Nixon's Back Channel to Moscow: Confidential Diplomacy and Détente

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780813167879
eISBN:
9780813167909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813167879.003.0001
Subject:
History, Political History

Richard Nixon endorsed the use of a back channel between Henry Kissinger, as his personal representative, and Anatoly Dobrynin, as the intermediary to the Kremlin. Over time, the relationship came to ... More


Log cabins and field marshals’ batons

Geoff Payne

in The New Social Mobility: How the Politicians Got it Wrong

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9781447310662
eISBN:
9781447310686
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447310662.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

A good starting point for re-interpreting contemporary mobility is older views of social mobility, because these ideas shape our interpretations of mobility. Older ‘traditional’ societies with low ... More


Applications of graphene

E. L. Wolf

in Graphene: A New Paradigm in Condensed Matter and Device Physics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199645862
eISBN:
9780191767852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645862.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Field-effect transistors with graphene channel, in research stages, provide current gain up to 100 GHz but are not suitable for logic. Many are made on SiC and properties of graphene grown on SiC are ... More


International Differences in the Adoption and Impact of New Information Technologies and New HR Practices: The Valve-Making Industry in the United States and United Kingdom

Ann Bartel, Casey Ichniowski, Kathryn L. Shaw, and Ricardo Correa

in International Differences in the Business Practices and Productivity of Firms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226261942
eISBN:
9780226261959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226261959.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

There is now a well-developed body of macroeconomic evidence that information technology (IT) investments are likely to have paid-off with higher levels of productivity growth in industries that ... More


Routines for Innovation: Problem-Oriented Knowledge Communities and the Production of Clean Combustion

Ann Johnson

in The Emergence of Routines: Entrepreneurship, Organization, and Business History

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198787761
eISBN:
9780191829857
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198787761.003.0012
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

Between 1970 and 1990 the global automobile industry undertook a major project: a total redesign of the internal combustion engine. In tandem with changing regulatory and scientific understanding of ... More


Phase transitions and their devices

Sandip Tiwari

in Nanoscale Device Physics: Science and Engineering Fundamentals

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780198759874
eISBN:
9780191820847
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198759874.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Phase transitions as a collective response of an ensemble, with appearance of unique stable properties spontaneously, is critical to a variety of devices: electronic, magnetic, optical, and their ... More


Labour Export from the Asian Body Shops

Alan Gamlen

in Human Geopolitics: States, Emigrants, and the Rise of Diaspora Institutions

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198833499
eISBN:
9780191871931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833499.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Political Economy

Chapter 5 covers the emergence of diaspora institutions in countries across South and Central Asia and elsewhere from the 1970s. In these regions, the trend has been less about exile in-gathering and ... More


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