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The Role of Value Systems in Decision Making

Peter Dayan

in Better Than Conscious?: Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications For Institutions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262195805
eISBN:
9780262272353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195805.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Values, rewards, and costs play a central role in economic, statistical, and psychological notions of decision making. They also have surprisingly direct neural realizations. This chapter discusses ... More


Neuronal Correlates of Decision Making

Michael Platt, Peter Dayan, Stanislas Dehaene, Kevin McCabe, Randolf Menzel, Elizabeth Phelps, Hilke Plassmann, Roger Ratcliff, Michael Shadlen, and Wolf Singer

in Better Than Conscious?: Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications For Institutions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262195805
eISBN:
9780262272353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195805.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Decision making involves selection from sets of options based on current evidence about the state of the world and estimates of the value or utility of different outcomes. The neural correlates of ... More


Arriving at Democracy

Konrad H. Jarausch

in After Hitler: Recivilizing Germans, 1945-1995

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195127799
eISBN:
9780199869503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195127799.003.05
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on the process of “inner democratization”, which went beyond a mere observance of democratic forms to an internalized belief in democratic value systems.


Aiming at Well‐Being

John Kekes

in The Human Condition

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199588886
eISBN:
9780191595448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588886.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter is about the correction of mistaken conceptions of well‐being. Assuming that the commitments that form the content of a conception of well‐being are mistake‐free, the conception could ... More


Moral Values

David C. Rose

in The Moral Foundation of Economic Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199781744
eISBN:
9780199919116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199781744.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter distinguishes between moral values that encourage us to take positive moral actions and moral values that discourage us from taking negative moral actions. It explains why with regard to ... More


Moral Philosophy and Mental Representation

Stephen Stich

in Collected Papers, Volume 2: Knowledge, Rationality, and Morality, 1978-2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199733477
eISBN:
9780199949823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733477.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter is organized as follows. Sections I and II sketch two of the projects frequently pursued by moral philosophers, and the methods typically invoked in those projects. It is argued that ... More


Tools for Studying Childhood

Barbara Bennett Woodhouse

in The Ecology of Childhood: How Our Changing World Threatens Children's Rights

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780814794845
eISBN:
9780814784655
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814794845.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Comparative Law

Chapter two discusses the models, methods and value metrics used in this book. It presents the ecological model developed by sociologist Urie Bronfenbrenner, which places the child at the center of ... More


Duty-Based Moral Restraint

David C. Rose

in The Moral Foundation of Economic Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199781744
eISBN:
9780199919116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199781744.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter explains why principled moral restraint is a necessary but not sufficient condition for assuring an individual will be trustworthy in circumstances in which golden opportunities may ... More


“Wandering To-and-Fro”: Melville and Religion

Emory Elliott

in A Historical Guide to Herman Melville

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195142822
eISBN:
9780199850297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195142822.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, American, 19th Century Literature

As Lawrence Thomson presents in his work entitled Melville's Quarrel with God, philosophical and religious ideas played no small part in Melville's writings as he expressed questions about God, good ... More


The Failure of Metaphysics

Daphna Erdinast-Vulcan

in Joseph Conrad and the Modern Temper

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198117858
eISBN:
9780191671081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198117858.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, 20th-century Literature and Modernism, European Literature

As the recognition of the failure of myth does not automatically indicate ending the search for the key in understanding Conrad’s work or the ‘ultimate foundation’, the need to be able to confirm how ... More


Attitudes toward Care Services in the Home

Thomas Boggatz

in Growing Old in Egypt: The Supply and Demand of Care for Older Persons

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9789774164552
eISBN:
9781617970412
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
American University in Cairo Press
DOI:
10.5743/cairo/9789774164552.003.0006
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter presents the results of a qualitative study that investigated the attitudes of older Egyptians toward home care services. When asked about nursing homes, study participants tended to ... More


That’s (not) me now: development, identity, and being in time

Wendy Luttrell

in Children Framing Childhoods: Working-Class Kids' Visions of Care

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9781447352853
eISBN:
9781447353317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447352853.003.0006
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

This chapter describes how the young people, now in their late teens, returned to their childhood photographs and reflected upon their past selves. For those who were able to participate in the ... More


Unashamedly Black and Unapologetically Christian

Andrew Billingsley

in Mighty Like a River: The Black Church and Social Reform

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195161793
eISBN:
9780199849512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195161793.003.0014
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Visitors to the Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago are likely to be struck by the appearance of a beautiful oil painting that hangs in the vestibule. The sign underneath the painting reads, ... More


Categories of the Technological Age

Mark William Roche

in Why Literature Matters in the 21st Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300104493
eISBN:
9780300129595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300104493.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, 20th-century and Contemporary Literature

This chapter is an attempt to analyse some of the overriding categories of the technological age, focusing more on the effects of technology on social structures. The chapter is thus interested in ... More


Introduction: Rethinking Subjectivity

JoÃo Biehl, Byron Good, and Arthur Kleinman

in Subjectivity: Ethnographic Investigations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520247925
eISBN:
9780520939639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247925.003.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Anthropology, Theory and Practice

This introductory chapter discusses human experience and subjectivity, and presents a new way of thinking about subjectivity, first giving some examples of remaking subjectivity and then reviewing ... More


Obstetric Training as a Rite of Passage1

Robbi E. Davis-Floyd

in Birth as an American Rite of Passage

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520229327
eISBN:
9780520927216
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520229327.003.0008
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter examines obstetric training in the U.S. as an initiatory rite of passage. It considers the process by which medical practitioners are socialized both into the core belief and value ... More


Good: What Values Do We Bring to Music?

John J. Sheinbaum

in Good Music: What It Is and Who Gets to Decide

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780226593241
eISBN:
9780226593418
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226593418.003.0001
Subject:
Music, Philosophy of Music

Important scholarship over the last generation has done much to contextualize the conventional portrait of good music as having emerged within the particular realm of nineteenth-century “absolute” or ... More


Everyday Social Life and Culture

Ben Crewe

in The Prisoner Society: Power, Adaptation and Social Life in an English Prison

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199577965
eISBN:
9780191702266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577965.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter examines aspects of everyday social life and culture in HMP Wellingborough. It focuses on the informal economy and drug culture, issues of interpersonal politics and conflict, the ... More


Positive Scenario for the Future

Joy G. Dryfoos and Carol Barkin

in Adolescence: Growing Up in America Today

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195179613
eISBN:
9780199847358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179613.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The previous chapter presented a pessimistic view of the future for American teenagers in the 21st century and asked the question: Does it have to be like that? This chapter argues that it does not, ... More


The UN and intra-state conflicts: problematising the normative connection

Eşref Aksu

in The United Nations, Intra-state Peacekeeping and Normative Change

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719067488
eISBN:
9781781700525
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719067488.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This introductory chapter discusses the theme of this volume, which is about the connection between the United Nations' (UN) evolving approach to intra-state conflicts and the value system of the ... More


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