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Must Empiricism Be a Stance, and Could it Be One? How to Be an Empiricist and a Philosopher at the Same Time

Anja Jauernig

in Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply from Bas C. van Fraassen

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199218844
eISBN:
9780191711732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218844.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter begins by examining van Fraassen's claims that being an empiricist cannot amount to believing a central empiricist dogma (‘naïve empiricism’), but should be understood as consisting in ... More


Value Judgements and Normative Claims

MARCUS GEORGE SINGER

in The Ideal of a Rational Morality: Philosophical Compositions

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198250210
eISBN:
9780191681264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250210.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter proposes the use of the term ‘normative claims’, to cover both value judgements and moral judgements. A normative claim is a claim to the ... More


Problems of Rationality

Donald Davidson

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780198237549
eISBN:
9780191601378
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237545.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Applies Davidson's Unified Theory of thought, meaning, and action to three families of problems involving various aspects of rationality, some degree of which Davidson's theory of radical ... More


Sociology and Ideology

André Béteille

in Democracy and Its Institutions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198080961
eISBN:
9780199082049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198080961.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

This chapter explores the relationship between sociology and ideology, drawing on the work of M. N. Srinivas, and argues that sociology and ideology must be kept apart. It considers sociology as ... More


The Conception of Value

Paul Grice and Judith Baker

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199243877
eISBN:
9780191697302
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199243877.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

The works of Paul Grice collected in this volume present his metaphysical defence of value, and represent a modern attempt to provide a metaphysical foundation for value. Value judgements are viewed ... More


‘Ought’ and Imperatives

R. M. Hare

in The Language of Morals

Published in print:
1963
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198810773
eISBN:
9780191597619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198810776.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Defends Hare's claim that value‐judgements entail imperatives. He does so by first showing that cases appearing to undermine his claim are not genuine value‐judgements but rather statements of ... More


The Nature of Goodness

W. D. Ross

in The Right and the Good

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199252657
eISBN:
9780191598333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199252653.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This is the second of five chapters on good, and starts by making the point that it is around the question of the intrinsically good that the chief controversies about the nature of goodness or value ... More


The Ideal of a Rational Morality: Philosophical Compositions

Marcus George Singer

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198250210
eISBN:
9780191681264
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250210.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This book collects the most important essays by the distinguished moral philosopher Marcus G. Singer. Its guiding theme is the concept of a morality based in reason, ... More


Range, Information, and Process

Sabina Alkire

in Valuing Freedoms: Sen's Capability Approach and Poverty Reduction

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199245796
eISBN:
9780191600838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199245797.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Each of the four chapters of Part I of the book synthesizes one aspect that must be specified in the operationalization of the capability approach, then proposes a framework for doing so. This third ... More


JUDGEMENT AND DESIRE

GRAHAM ODDIE

in Value, Reality, and Desire

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199273416
eISBN:
9780191602658
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199273413.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter outlines two problems of knowledge which any cognitivist about value faces. One is the familiar problem of the motivational inertness of bare facts, and the knowledge of such facts. The ... More


A Taxonomy of Agent-control

Jeanette Kennett

in Agency and Responsibility: A Common-Sense Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199266302
eISBN:
9780191699146
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199266302.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter provides a taxonomy of agent-control which lays out in some detail what self-control is and how it may be exercised, and draws a distinction between autonomy, as self-rule and orthonomy, ... More


Introduction

Raaj K. Sah and Joseph E. Stiglitz

in Peasants versus City-Dwellers: Taxation and the Burden of Economic Development

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199253579
eISBN:
9780191601682
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253579.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The aim of this book is to provide a rigorous framework within which the fundamental question of who should bear the burden of economic development in less developed countries (LDCs) can be addressed ... More


Data Envelopment Analysis: The Mathematical Programming Approach to Efficiency Analysis

Emmanuel Thanassoulis, Maria C. S. Portela, and Ozren Despić

in The Measurement of Productive Efficiency and Productivity Change

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195183528
eISBN:
9780199870288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183528.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter deals with the measurement of efficiency through the nonparametric, mathematical programming-based technique better known as data envelopment analysis (DEA). A producer is defined as an ... More


Commending and Choosing

R. M. Hare

in The Language of Morals

Published in print:
1963
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198810773
eISBN:
9780191597619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198810776.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Value‐words have their peculiar combination of descriptive and prescriptive meaning, Hare argues, because they are used for a specific purpose—to commend. To commend is not, however, to say something ... More


Collective Utility and Welfare

Ian Malcolm David Little

in Ethics, Economics, and Politics: Principles of Public Policy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199257041
eISBN:
9780191601293
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257043.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Normative economics is mainly concerned with the welfare of communities. Somehow the happiness or utility of individuals has to be compared, and amalgamated or added up. The status of the ... More


Intending

Donald Davidson

in Essays on Actions and Events

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246274
eISBN:
9780191715198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246270.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This essay picks up where Essay 4 left off: how best to specify the desire and belief that rationalize and cause an action? A conjunction of desire and belief rationalize an action only when that ... More


Farewell to Empiricism

Dien Ho

in Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply from Bas C. van Fraassen

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199218844
eISBN:
9780191711732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218844.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In Lecture 2 of The Empirical Stance, Bas van Fraassen argues that empiricism cannot be construed as a simple philosophical position; instead, he suggests that empiricism should be thought of as a ... More


Setting priorities

Andrew Green

in An Introduction to Health Planning for Developing Health Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198571346
eISBN:
9780191724138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198571346.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on the key questions of who should set priorities, and how. It also examines the complex issues of the underlying factors and attitudes towards priorities. It argues that ... More


The Government as Body Politic

Peter Trepte

in Regulating Procurement: Understanding the Ends and Means of Public Procurement Regulation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198267751
eISBN:
9780191683350
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198267751.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Market and institutional failures leading to conditions of imperfect competition which negatively affect economic efficiency (Pareto efficiency) explain many of the provisions which are common to ... More


Other management decisions

Fiona Randall and R.S. Downie

in Palliative Care Ethics: A Companion for All Specialties

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780192630681
eISBN:
9780191730078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630681.003.0009
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making

This chapter discusses problems of autonomy and competence, alternative therapy, the place of care, and the quality of care. Patients' choices are respected, even if they are not fully autonomous nor ... More


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