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The Demise of Reductionism in Philosophy of Science

Steven Horst

in Beyond Reduction: Philosophy of Mind and Post-Reductionist Philosophy of Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195317114
eISBN:
9780199871520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195317114.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter examines the widespread assumptions that intertheoretic reductions are common in the natural sciences and that reducibility serves as a kind of normative constraint upon the legitimacy ... More


The Miracle of Monism

John Dupré

in Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199691982
eISBN:
9780191738111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691982.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter defends a pluralistic view of science: the various projects of enquiry that fall under the general rubric of science share neither a methodology nor a subject matter. Ontologically, it ... More


Wittgenstein and the Autonomy Of Humanistic Understandin g

P. M. S Hacker

in Wittgenstein: Connections and Controversies

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199245697
eISBN:
9780191602245
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924569X.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Clarifies why Wittgenstein’s philosophy has profound implications for the humanities and human sciences. It sketches the gradual growth, from the Renaissance until the early twentieth century, of ... More


Scientific Significance

Philip Kitcher

in Science, Truth, and Democracy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145830
eISBN:
9780199833344
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145836.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Truth is one goal for the sciences. But the whole truth cannot be our goal. Hence there is an issue about which truths we aim for in inquiry. This chapter argues that any way of resolving that issue ... More


Organisms and the Unity of Science

Paul Guyer

in Kant and the Sciences

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195133059
eISBN:
9780199786169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195133056.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This paper considers Kant’s understanding of organisms by undertaking a developmental approach to the issue. It presents three different arguments Kant posits in the third Critique regarding the kind ... More


 The A Priori Structure of Reasons

Wolfgang Spohn

in The Laws of Belief: Ranking Theory and Its Philosophical Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199697502
eISBN:
9780191739323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697502.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

The final chapter intends to revive reason or rationality as a source of the a priori in a roughly Kantian spirit. Therefore, the two notions of apriority introduced in Chapter 6 and their dynamic ... More


The Charms and Consequences of Evolutionary Psychology

John Dupré

in Human Nature and the Limits of Science

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199248063
eISBN:
9780191597367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199248060.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Considers, first, why the programme of evolutionary psychology appears to have such appeal, despite its epistemological weakness. Answers to this question include a commitment to an ill‐conceived ... More


Levels and Fields of Science

Angela Potochnik

in Idealization and the Aims of Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226507057
eISBN:
9780226507194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226507194.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The preceding chapters have developed an account of the aims and practice of science that features, at its core, the idea that idealization is rampant and unchecked. This chapter outlines the ... More


The Promotion of Unification

Stephen Gaukroger

in Civilization and the Culture of Science: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1795-1935

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198849070
eISBN:
9780191883347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198849070.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The nineteenth-century cultural elevation of science puts it in some respects in an analogous position to that previously occupied by religion in marking out Western civilization. Beginning in the ... More


The Cybernetician

Tara H. Abraham

in Rebel Genius: Warren S. McCulloch's Transdisciplinary Life in Science

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035095
eISBN:
9780262335386
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035095.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter offers an interpretation of the cybernetics movement that places McCulloch at the centre of the story. By doing so, it illustrates that McCulloch’s cybernetic project can be best ... More


Empiricism and Scientific Methodology

Bas C. van Fraassen

in The Scientific Image

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244271
eISBN:
9780191597473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244274.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Scientific theories do much more than answer empirical questions. This can be understood along empiricist lines only if those other aspects are instrumental for the pursuit of empirical strength and ... More


Toward a Theory of Science

Mariam Thalos

in Without Hierarchy: The Scale Freedom of the Universe

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199917648
eISBN:
9780199980345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917648.003.0000
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Resheathing involves creating something new by changing the environment (the “sheath”) of an already existing object. There is activity of this kind at all scales of the universe. The proposition ... More


Special Sciences (Or: The Disunity of Science as a Working Hypothesis)

Jerry Fodor

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0026
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the confusion regarding the “unity of science.” What has traditionally been called “the unity of science” is a much stronger, and much less plausible, thesis than the generality ... More


Toward a More Truth-Illuminating Metaphysics

Mariam Thalos

in Without Hierarchy: The Scale Freedom of the Universe

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199917648
eISBN:
9780199980345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917648.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The preceding chapters have set out a new vision of the unity of science, one that reinvents philosophy and its relationship to the sciences and breathes new life into old philosophical questions. ... More


The Reduction of Society

D. H. Mellor

in Mind, Meaning, and Reality: Essays in Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199645084
eISBN:
9780191743351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645084.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter debates the reducibility of social to psychological sciences as a question of fact rather than of method. So read, it rejects arguments for reducibility based on principles of ... More


Introduction to Part II

Jody Azzouni

in Talking About Nothing: Numbers, Hallucinations and Fictions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199738946
eISBN:
9780199866175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738946.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This introduction takes notes of the fact that we have many different kinds of discourses—moral discourse, mathematical discourse, scientific discourse, fictional discourse, and so on—and that one ... More


Without Hierarchy: The Scale Freedom of the Universe

Mariam Thalos

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199917648
eISBN:
9780199980345
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917648.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

A venerable tradition in the metaphysics of science commends ontological reduction: the practice of analysis of theoretical entities into further and further proper parts, with the understanding that ... More


Intellectual Projects

Daniel R. Huebner

in Becoming Mead: The Social Process of Academic Knowledge

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226171371
eISBN:
9780226171548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226171548.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Social Theory

Chapter 6 analyzes case studies of George Herbert Mead’s students who were influential in promoting interpretations of his work, Charles Morris and Herbert Blumer. The chapter traces their graduate ... More


Neuroscience: A Multidisciplinary, Multilevel Field

Robert G. Shulman

in Brain Imaging: What it Can (and Cannot) Tell Us About Consciousness

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199838721
eISBN:
9780199345373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199838721.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Although causal explanations by fundamental laws, such as those found in classical physics, are often considered the ideal of science, they are not the understanding scientists have of multilevel, ... More


Civilization and the Culture of Science: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1795-1935

Stephen Gaukroger

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198849070
eISBN:
9780191883347
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198849070.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

How does science, in the period from the end of the eighteenth to the middle of the twentieth century, come to have such a central place in Western culture? At issue in the consolidation of a ... More


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