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Solar Radiation

ADELE C. GREEN and DAVID C. WHITEMAN

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0016
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses link between solar radiation and cancer. Topics covered include methods of measurement, determinants of solar irradiance and solar dose, measuring personal exposure to solar ... More


INCOMING SOLAR RADIATION

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter examines the factors that determine the amount of solar radiation that reaches the Earth, and which primarily controls its climate. On timescales of billion years, the Sun evolves as a ... More


Multiple Causes for Declining Amphibian Populations

Andrew R. Blaustein, Audrey C. Hatch, Lisa K. Belden, and Joseph M. Kiesecker

in Experimental Approaches to Conservation Biology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520240247
eISBN:
9780520930636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520240247.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter focuses on studies that incorporate experimental evidence to address the amphibian population decline phenomenon. It discusses the major causes of global amphibian declines, such as ... More


A Burning Issue

Pete A. Ensminger

in Life Under the Sun

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300088045
eISBN:
9780300133523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300088045.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter focuses on the ozone layer present in the lower stratosphere and its biological significance. The ozone is created and destroyed by ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Various natural ... More


Ultraviolet Radiation

Andrew R. Blaustein and Lisa K. Belden

in Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520235922
eISBN:
9780520929432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520235922.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Global climate changes, including changes in atmospheric conditions, may be contributing to amphibian population declines. Studies of amphibians and ultraviolet radiation have concentrated on ... More


Ecological impacts of ultraviolet-B radiation on marine ecosystems

Sébastien Moreau, Francesca Vidussi, Gustavo Ferreyra, and Behzad Mostajir

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR, 280–320 nm), the most biologically damaging portion of the solar spectra reaching the Earth’s ground, received considerable scientific attention after the discovery of ... More


Skin Cancer

Adèle Green, Jolieke Van Der Pols, and David Hunter

in Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195311174
eISBN:
9780199865093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311174.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The predominant carcinogen for all three forms of skin cancer is ultraviolet radiation via sun exposure. Personal susceptibility factors include fair hair and skin, and a tendency to burn and not ... More


Ultraviolet Radiation

Adèle C. Green and David C. Whiteman

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the principal cause of over 95% of keratinocyte cancers (basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin), the most common cancers in white populations ... More


The cellular responses of marine algae and invertebrates to ultraviolet radiation, alone and in combination with other common abiotic stressors

David J. Burritt and Miles D. Lamare

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides an overview of the key physiological responses in marine algae and invertebrates exposed to ultraviolet radiation. It outlines the importance of spectral irradiances and ... More


Repercussions of Global Change

Jamie K. Reaser and Blaustein Andrew

in Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520235922
eISBN:
9780520929432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520235922.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Amphibians warrant substantial conservation attention. They are considered valuable indicators of environmental quality, and they have multiple functional roles in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. ... More


Ultraviolet

Ben Woodard

in Prismatic Ecology: Ecotheory beyond Green

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816679973
eISBN:
9781452948737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816679973.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter examines the interconnections between nineteenth-century German philosopher F. W. J. von Schelling’s Naturphilosophie or dynamics of nature coupled with the dynamics of the idea; Johann ... More


The Veiled Planet

Frank H. T. Rhodes

in Earth: A Tenant's Manual

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801478239
eISBN:
9780801466212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801478239.003.0005
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

This chapter details the characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere—its layering, distribution, extent, nature, and broad composition—and the ways in which it sustains life. The Earth's remarkable ... More


Melanoma

Bruce K. Armstrong, Claire M. Vajdic, and Anne E. Cust

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0057
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Melanoma is a cancer of melanocytes, cells that produce the brown-black skin pigment melanin. Melanocytes originate in cells of the neural crest and migrate during embryogenesis, principally to the ... More


Skin Cancer

Adèle C. Green, Catherine M. Olsen, and David J. Hunter

in Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780190676827
eISBN:
9780190676858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190676827.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Skin cancer is one of the few types of cancer for which exposure to the major carcinogen, solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is strongly implicated on the basis of descriptive epidemiologic data ... More


Causes

Michael Lannoo

in Malformed Frogs: The Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255883
eISBN:
9780520942530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255883.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter lists the natural and manmade causes of frog malformations. The natural causes of malformations include wounds from failed predation attempts, fish excrement, extreme tadpole densities, ... More


Resolutions

Michael Lannoo

in Malformed Frogs: The Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255883
eISBN:
9780520942530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255883.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the potential biases that exist in malformed frog data. It also notes several important trends in malformed frog literature and suggests that malformations are more numerous ... More


Living conditions in high altitude waters

Dean Jacobsen and Olivier Dangles

in Ecology of High Altitude Waters

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780198736868
eISBN:
9780191800481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198736868.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Chapter 3 deals with the abiotic environment in high altitude lakes and streams worldwide. It searches for general patterns in relation to altitude, without overlooking the enormous variability, both ... More


Epilogue Sunlight into the Twenty-First Century

in American Sunshine: Diseases of Darkness and the Quest for Natural Light

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226262819
eISBN:
9780226262833
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226262833.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Sunshine requirements took a new sense of urgency by the 1920s, and expert scientists and doctors asserted a role in light therapy. By 1930, the tan was in, and not just as a result of changing ... More


Biodiversity and Environmental Threats

Christer Brönmark and Lars-Anders Hansson

in The Biology of Lakes and Ponds

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198713593
eISBN:
9780191781902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198713593.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

The last chapter of Lakes and Ponds deals with how human activities affect the natural ecosystems and their function through eutrophication, contamination, acidification, brownification and increases ... More


Snow

Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Tranter Martyn, and Hodson Andrew J.

in The Ecology of Snow and Ice Environments

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199583072
eISBN:
9780191774669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583072.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter explores snow as a biological medium. Snow coloured red and pink has been described since ancient times, and is caused by so called ‘snow algae’, which have been researched since the ... More


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