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Joe Nickell

in Real or Fake: Studies in Authentication

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813125343
eISBN:
9780813135229
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813125343.003.0014
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter examines a fire-damaged religious icon that had reportedly been taken from Poland. The man who owned it, George Chesney of Orlando, Florida, wanted to return it to that country through ... More


INCOMING SOLAR RADIATION

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter examines the factors that determine the amount of solar radiation that reaches the Earth, and which primarily controls its climate. On timescales of billion years, the Sun evolves as a ... More


Ultraviolet Radiation

Andrew R. Blaustein and Lisa K. Belden

in Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520235922
eISBN:
9780520929432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520235922.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Global climate changes, including changes in atmospheric conditions, may be contributing to amphibian population declines. Studies of amphibians and ultraviolet radiation have concentrated on ... More


Classical Black-body Radiation

John Weiner and Frederico Nunes

in Light-Matter Interaction: Physics and Engineering at the Nanoscale, Second Edition

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780198796664
eISBN:
9780191837920
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198796664.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Chapter 6 reviews the Rayleigh–Jeans and Planck frequency distributions in black-body radiation. The discussion shows how any black-body radiation distribution must be the product of mode counting ... More


In the Eye of the Beholder: Color Vision and the Quantification of Color

Geoffrey E. Hill

in A Red Bird in a Brown Bag: The Function and Evolution of Colorful Plumage in the House Finch

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195148480
eISBN:
9780199893683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148480.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter contrasts the tri-stimulus visual system of humans, based on three visual cones, with the tetra-stimulus visual system of birds, based on four visual cones. A key difference between the ... More


Optical and electronic properties

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter considers the interaction of electromagnetic waves with ice at frequencies ranging from radio waves to the ultraviolet. There are windows of transparency at radio/microwave frequencies ... More


The Theory Of QCD

GÜNTHER DISSERTORI, IAN G. KNOWLES, and MICHAEL SCHMELLING

in Quantum Chromodynamics: High Energy Experiments and Theory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199566419
eISBN:
9780191708060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566419.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter begins with the formal derivation of QCD as a gauge theory based on the symmetry group SU(3). It then describes the basic reactions of lepton-lepton, lepton-hadron, and hadron-hadron ... More


Solar Radiation

ADELE C. GREEN and DAVID C. WHITEMAN

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0016
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses link between solar radiation and cancer. Topics covered include methods of measurement, determinants of solar irradiance and solar dose, measuring personal exposure to solar ... More


Skin Cancer

Adèle Green, Jolieke Van Der Pols, and David Hunter

in Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195311174
eISBN:
9780199865093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311174.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The predominant carcinogen for all three forms of skin cancer is ultraviolet radiation via sun exposure. Personal susceptibility factors include fair hair and skin, and a tendency to burn and not ... More


Repercussions of Global Change

Jamie K. Reaser and Blaustein Andrew

in Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520235922
eISBN:
9780520929432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520235922.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Amphibians warrant substantial conservation attention. They are considered valuable indicators of environmental quality, and they have multiple functional roles in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. ... More


Epilogue Sunlight into the Twenty-First Century

in American Sunshine: Diseases of Darkness and the Quest for Natural Light

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226262819
eISBN:
9780226262833
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226262833.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Sunshine requirements took a new sense of urgency by the 1920s, and expert scientists and doctors asserted a role in light therapy. By 1930, the tan was in, and not just as a result of changing ... More


The Veiled Planet

Frank H. T. Rhodes

in Earth: A Tenant's Manual

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801478239
eISBN:
9780801466212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801478239.003.0005
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

This chapter details the characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere—its layering, distribution, extent, nature, and broad composition—and the ways in which it sustains life. The Earth's remarkable ... More


Topical therapy

Jacek C. Szepietowski and Robert Twycross

in Pruritus in Advanced Disease

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780198525103
eISBN:
9780191730238
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525103.003.0012
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making

This chapter discusses topical therapy, starting with its most general principles. Emollients or moisturizers are commonly prescribed to treat pruritus, and other specific topical antipruritics can ... More


Stokes’s Optics 2: Other Phenomena in Light

Olivier Darrigol

in George Gabriel Stokes: Life, Science and Faith

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198822868
eISBN:
9780191861321
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198822868.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter continues the previous one in studying Stokes’s contributions to physical optics. He opened up a new research field and destroyed an old Newtonian dogma of the immutability of simple ... More


Primary Prevention of Cancer

Michael J. Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0062
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Primary prevention has enormous potential to reduce the human, social, and economic costs of cancer worldwide. The following sections discuss the development and application of preventive ... More


Multiple Causes for Declining Amphibian Populations

Andrew R. Blaustein, Audrey C. Hatch, Lisa K. Belden, and Joseph M. Kiesecker

in Experimental Approaches to Conservation Biology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520240247
eISBN:
9780520930636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520240247.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter focuses on studies that incorporate experimental evidence to address the amphibian population decline phenomenon. It discusses the major causes of global amphibian declines, such as ... More


Attraction of prey

John D. Horner, Bartosz J. Płachno, Ulrike Bauer, and Bruno Di Giusto

in Carnivorous Plants: Physiology, ecology, and evolution

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198779841
eISBN:
9780191825873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779841.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Ecology

The ability to attract prey has long been considered a universal trait of carnivorous plants. We review studies from the past 25 years that have investigated the mechanisms by which carnivorous ... More


Suggestions for Collecting and Observing Moths

Jerry A. Powell and Paul A. Opler

in Moths of Western North America

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251977
eISBN:
9780520943773
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251977.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter provides an overview of collecting moths and outlines the materials and methods for moth collection. It describes the use of different lights to attract moths: mercury-vapor lights and ... More


Causes

Michael Lannoo

in Malformed Frogs: The Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255883
eISBN:
9780520942530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255883.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter lists the natural and manmade causes of frog malformations. The natural causes of malformations include wounds from failed predation attempts, fish excrement, extreme tadpole densities, ... More


Resolutions

Michael Lannoo

in Malformed Frogs: The Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255883
eISBN:
9780520942530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255883.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the potential biases that exist in malformed frog data. It also notes several important trends in malformed frog literature and suggests that malformations are more numerous ... More


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