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Religion and Politics: The West, Islam, Byzantium

Antony Black

in The West and Islam: Religion and Political Thought in World History

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199533206
eISBN:
9780191714498
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199533206.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Early Christianity saw church and state as separate. Early Islam conceived a single 'umma under a single caliphate. It prescribed an all-embracing Shari'a. But after Constantine Christianity brought ... More


‘Ulama’

Muhammad Qasim Zaman

in Islamic Political Thought: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691164823
eISBN:
9781400866427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164823.003.0016
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter discusses the origin and development of the term ‘ulama.’ The Arabic term ‘ulamā’ refers to Muslim scholars specializing in the Islamic religious sciences. A number of other terms are ... More


Piety and Politics: Islamism in Contemporary Malaysia

Joseph Chiyong Liow

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195377088
eISBN:
9780199869527
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195377088.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This book challenges conventional wisdom by arguing that tectonic movements and subterranean shifts that underscore the gradual politicization of Islam and the rise of an Islamism in political and ... More


Imām al-Kitmān

Adam R. Gaiser

in Muslims, Scholars, Soldiers: The Origin and Elaboration of the Ibadi Imamate Traditions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199738939
eISBN:
9780199894598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738939.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter examines the leadership of the Ibāḍī community during the state of secrecy (kitmān). It shows how ‘ilm became an essential trait of the imāmate through the early circles of quietist ... More


Imām al-Difā‘, Imām al-Ḍa‘īf, and Community

Adam R. Gaiser

in Muslims, Scholars, Soldiers: The Origin and Elaboration of the Ibadi Imamate Traditions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199738939
eISBN:
9780199894598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738939.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter examines the role of the Ibāḍī community—meaning primarily the scholars as representatives of the umma—as caretakers of the imāmate. A dynamic existed between Imām and ‘ulamā’, whereby ... More


Indonesia: Greening the Pancasila State

Robert R. Bianchi

in Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195171075
eISBN:
9780199835102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195171071.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, Islam

When Suharto began losing support in the military, he tried to shore up popularity by making the Indonesian hajj the largest in the world and dragging his whole family to Mecca to deflect outrage ... More


Purist Salafism in the Age of Islamic Nationalism

Henri Lauzière

in The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780231175500
eISBN:
9780231540179
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231175500.003.0003
Subject:
History, Middle East History

Chapter 3 shows that the gradual and at times hesitant conceptualization of Salafism mirrored the dilemmas that reformers faced between the 1930s and 1950s. It thus traces the rise of purist Salafism ... More


Introduction: In Practice…

Tariq Ramadan

in Western Muslims and the Future of Islam

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195183566
eISBN:
9780199850426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183566.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This book's proposal is anchored in the Islamic tradition and amplified from within it: in this sense it is both deeply classical and radically new. It begins with the Qur'an and the Sunna and the ... More


The Fundamental Problem in the Clerical Establishment

Morteza Motahhari and Hamid Dabashi

in The Most Learned of the Shiʿa: The Institution of the Marjaʿ Taqlid

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195137996
eISBN:
9780199849055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137996.003.0011
Subject:
Religion, Islam

Morteza Motahari, assassinated in May 1979, was one of the most important ideologues of the Islamic revolution. A vociferous writer, he ardently attacked Iranian secular intellectuals and the ... More


Analysis of Khomeini's Proofs for al-Wilaya al-Mutalqa (Comprehensive Authority) of the Jurist

Hamid Mavani

in The Most Learned of the Shiʿa: The Institution of the Marjaʿ Taqlid

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195137996
eISBN:
9780199849055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137996.003.0012
Subject:
Religion, Islam

Ayatollah Khomeini's objective was to eliminate any restrictions to the ulama's power, so that their authority would be equal to that of the Prophet and the Hidden Imam. This chapter examines the ... More


Fayd al-Kashani and the Rejection of the Clergy/State Alliance: Friday Prayer as Politics in the Safavid Period

Andrew J. Newman

in The Most Learned of the Shiʿa: The Institution of the Marjaʿ Taqlid

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195137996
eISBN:
9780199849055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137996.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter focuses on the debates of 17th-century Safavid Iran as the state which, in an effort to establish its own power, promoted the expanded authority of the clergy. The theological issue is ... More


The Economic Role of the Ulama in Qajar Persia

Willem Floor

in The Most Learned of the Shiʿa: The Institution of the Marjaʿ Taqlid

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195137996
eISBN:
9780199849055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137996.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter focuses on the role of the religious class, in particular of its leading proponents, the ulama, in the economy of 19th-century Persia. It begins by describing the context in which the ... More


Forging Islamic Power and Place: The Legacy of Shaykh Daud bin 'Abd Allah al-Fatani in Mecca and Southeast Asia

Francis R. Bradley

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824851613
eISBN:
9780824868093
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824851613.001.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

Following a defeat by Siam in 1786, the Patani community experienced a period of displacement that resulted in many resettling elsewhere in the Malay world and Mecca. This marked the denouement for ... More


Past and Present Issues of Islam within the Central Javanese Gamelan and Wayang Kulit

Sumarsam

in Divine Inspirations: Music and Islam in Indonesias

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195385410
eISBN:
9780199896974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385410.003.0002
Subject:
Music, Ethnomusicology, World Music, History, Western

This chapter confronts issues of debate on music with regard to two of Indonesia's most prominent performing arts: the Javanese gamelan and wayang kulit shadow play. It critiques the histories of ... More


Formalizing Shari‘a Locally Through Ulama

Arskal Salim

in Challenging the Secular State: The Islamization of Law in Modern Indonesia

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824832377
eISBN:
9780824868963
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824832377.003.0018
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies

This chapter shows how the Acehnese ulama (religious scholars) have used political power to implement shariʻa and define and shape the life of Muslim Acehnese in compliance with Islamic shariʻa. In ... More


The Baluch, Sunnism and the State in Iran: From Tribal to Global

Stéphane A. Dudoignon

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190655914
eISBN:
9780190872632
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190655914.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

Since 2002, Sunni jihadi groups have been active in Iranian Baluchistan without managing to plunge the region into chaos. This book suggests that a reason for this, besides Tehran’s military ... More


Organising Da’wah and Spreading Reform

Muhamad Ali

in Islam and Colonialism: Becoming Modern in Indonesia and Malaya

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781474409209
eISBN:
9781474418799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474409209.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Islam

It deals with the way that Muslims who were influenced by Muslim reformism in Mecca and Cairo constructed Islam as a progressive religion and built faith communities in order to pursue progress in ... More


Teaching Agama and the Secular

Muhamad Ali

in Islam and Colonialism: Becoming Modern in Indonesia and Malaya

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781474409209
eISBN:
9781474418799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474409209.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Islam

It discusses Muslim’s definitions of knowledge and education in terms of faith and progress, and the ways that they distinguished worldly from religious subjects and promoted the teaching of both. ... More


Saudi Arabia between pan-Islamism, Iconoclasm and Political Legitimacy

Ondřej Beránek and Pavel Ťupek

in The Temptation of Graves in Salafi Islam: Iconoclasm, Destruction and Idolatry

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781474417570
eISBN:
9781474444774
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474417570.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter explains the process of Wahhabism institutionalisation that occurred during the period of the third Saudi state, as well as the proselytic mechanism that has been part of Saudi-led ... More


Introduction

Masooda Bano and Keiko Sakurai

in Shaping Global Islamic Discourses: The Role of al-Azhar, al-Medina and al-Mustafa

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780748696857
eISBN:
9781474412247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748696857.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This introductory chapter describes the working of the three most influential international centres of Islamic learning in contemporary times: al Azhar University in Egypt, the Islamic University of ... More


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