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When Is Enough Enough?

Daniel Strickman, Stephen P. Frances, and Mustapha Debboun

in Prevention of Bug Bites, Stings, and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195365771
eISBN:
9780199867677
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365771.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Natural History and Field Guides

Diseases like malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis have their own distributions. Where these vector‐borne pathogens occur, extra care must be taken to avoid bites. ... More


Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Paul Weindling

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

How did typhus come to be viewed as a ‘Jewish disease’ and what was the connection between the anti-typhus measures during the First World War and the Nazi gas chambers and other genocidal medical ... More


Disease as Metamorphosis

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0014
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Delousing became routine during World War I, as a result of the recent discovery that lice spread typhus. In Nazi Germany, ethnic undesirables were stigmatized as human vermin and as poisoning the ... More


Cleansing Bodies, Defending Borders

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0017
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Bacteriologists rallied to the defence of Nazi Germany's frontiers and monitored the spread of epidemics; they aimed to prevent the passage of animal and human carriers of bacteria. State, ... More


The First World War and Combating Lice

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0020
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Armed with the discovery that the louse was the carrier of typhus, Nazi Germany's military hygienists set out to ameliorate the squalid conditions in the trenches on the Western Front during World ... More


Defending German Health: Technical Solutions

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0025
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Confident in an imminent German victory in 1918, Prussia's medical department planned elaborate sanitary measures on the extended frontiers. The returning troops and civilians were to undergo a ... More


The Sanitary Iron Curtain: The Relief of Polish and Russian Typhus

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0028
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The breakdown of the cordon of preventive delousing stations, erected during the German occupation of Russian Poland, fuelled fears that a typhus epidemic was poised to race across Europe. The ... More


The Demise of Internationalism

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0035
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Realizing the dangers of an international conflagration, medical scientists sought to offset this by cooperating internationally in identifying strains of bacteria and other microbial pathogens, and ... More


From Geo-medicine to Genocide

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0037
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Nazi Germany's medical propaganda characterized the enemy in the east as ‘fundamentally Asiatic’, and typhus as historically a Central Asian disease spread by nomadic types like Jews and gypsies. ... More


Delousing and the Holocaust

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0041
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Typhus became virtually extinct in Germany before World War II, but during the war it rocketed to levels at least as high as during the World War I. It is hard to know whether the initially low rates ... More


‘Victory with Vaccines’: Human Guinea-pigs and Louse-feeders

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0046
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Developing a typhus vaccine was to boost Germany's medical and racial defences. Given that typhus was a primitive ‘Asiatic’ disease spread by racial vermin, an effective vaccine was required to ... More


Clinical Trials on Trial

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0052
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Before World War II ended, allied medical experts devised stringent measures to prevent a massive ‘blow up’ of epidemic typhus in Germany. The United States of America Typhus Commission (USATC) ... More


Typhus

Anne Hardy

in The Epidemic Streets: Infectious Diseases and the Rise of Preventive Medicine 1856–1900

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198203773
eISBN:
9780191675966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203773.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Typhus is caused by Rickettsia prowazeki, one of a distinct genus of organisms, and appears to be invariably louse-borne among human beings. Like dysentery, it appears wherever poverty, crowding, and ... More


Tuberculosis

Anne Hardy

in The Epidemic Streets: Infectious Diseases and the Rise of Preventive Medicine 1856–1900

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198203773
eISBN:
9780191675966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203773.003.0009
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, although this was not accepted in England until the end of the nineteenth century. Like typhus, its incidence is closely related to environment and domestic ... More


Hastings

Jason Thompson

in Edward William Lane 1801–1876: The Life of the Pioneering Egyptologist and Orientalist

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789774162879
eISBN:
9781617970214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
American University in Cairo Press
DOI:
10.5743/cairo/9789774162879.003.0029
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

The family was happy to be back in England, though the boys found their activities curtailed at first “on account of want of Frank clothing”. Lane's precarious health admitted no possibility of ... More


Begging and Alms-Giving: Perceptions and Motivations

Ciarán McCabe

in Begging, Charity and Religion in Pre-Famine Ireland

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781786941572
eISBN:
9781789629002
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781786941572.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

Perceptions of begging and beggars were not universally shared in pre-Famine Ireland. Fears of the spread of disease and frustration at the inconvenience caused by beggars coloured many hostile ... More


Some Conclusions

Jessica Reinisch

in The Perils of Peace: The Public Health Crisis in Occupied Germany

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199660797
eISBN:
9780191748295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660797.003.0009
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The concluding chapter identifies significant differences and similarities between the four occupation regimes, and elucidates on the place and role of public health in post-war Germany.


Mobilizing New Models of Public Health and Medicine, 1945–1948

John Paul DiMoia

in Reconstructing Bodies: Biomedicine, Health, and Nation-Building in South Korea Since 1945

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780804784115
eISBN:
9780804786133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804784115.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter narrates the cholera outbreak of the late 1940s during the early stages of the American occupation of Korea (1945-1948), arguing that this outbreak and subsequent large-scale public ... More


Sweet and Clean

Susan North

in Sweet and Clean?: Bodies and Clothes in Early Modern England

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198856139
eISBN:
9780191889639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198856139.003.0012
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, Cultural History

Chapter 12 draws together the evidence from the preceding ten chapters to reassess theories and practices of cleanliness in early modern England. Those with servants had both clean laundry and the ... More


Devotions of Affliction: The Dramaturgy of Colonial Epidemics

Paul Ramírez

in Enlightened Immunity: Mexico's Experiments with Disease Prevention in the Age of Reason

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781503604339
eISBN:
9781503605800
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503604339.003.0002
Subject:
History, Latin American History

From 1736 to 1739 an outbreak of matlazahuatl, likely typhus, ravaged the Valley of Mexico. In Mexico City, public responses in the form of hospital care, processions, and numerous devotional acts ... More


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