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Towards a food web perspective on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

Bradley Cardinale, Emmett Duffy, Diane Srivastava, Michel Loreau, Matt Thomas, and Mark Emmerson

in Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing: An Ecological and Economic Perspective

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199547951
eISBN:
9780191720345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547951.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

While one of the most striking features of our planet is its great variety of life, studies show that ongoing biodiversity loss could reduce the productivity of ecosystems by as much as 50%. However, ... More


Conclusions: An Ecosystem Perspective of Shallow Marine Reefs

Tim R. McClanahan and George M. Branch

in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195319958
eISBN:
9780199869596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319958.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter summarizes what the authors consider to be the key and general organizing principles of kelp forests and coral reefs along gradients of oceanography, latitude, and effects of fishing and ... More


Kelp Forest Food Webs in the Aleutian Archipelago

James A. Estes

in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195319958
eISBN:
9780199869596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319958.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

The chapter summarizes the current understanding of the kelp forest ecosystems of Alaska by focusing on the key role that otters, killer whales, and man have played in the ecological organization of ... More


Food chains and food webs: controlling factors and cascading effects

Gary G. Mittelbach and Brian J. McGill

in Community Ecology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198835851
eISBN:
9780191873379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198835851.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter uses simple theory and experiments to address the fundamental question of what determines the biomass (abundance) of different trophic levels (plants, herbivores, carnivores) in a ... More


Pattern and process in food webs: evidence from running waters

Guy Woodward, Ross Thompson, Colin R. Townsend, and Alan G. Hildrew

in Aquatic Food Webs: An ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198564836
eISBN:
9780191713828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198564836.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

Studies on streams provide some of the most detailed and best resolved webs yet available, and provide a means to test food web theory. These systems can be used to test patterns in connectance webs ... More


Food Web Interactions in Freshwater Ecosystems

Christer Brönmark and Lars-Anders Hansson

in The Biology of Lakes and Ponds

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198713593
eISBN:
9780191781902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198713593.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter on food web interactions connects the organisms and their interactions with the abiotic frame and provides a helicopter perspective on the function of freshwater ecosystems. Initially, ... More


Trophic Interaction Networks and Ecosystem Services

Christopher J. Whelan, Diana F. Tomback, Dave Kelly, and Matthew D. Johnson

in Why Birds Matter: Avian Ecological Function and Ecosystem Services

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780226382463
eISBN:
9780226382777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226382777.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Birds function within their ecosystems in ways that include many direct and indirect chains of trophic interaction. In some interaction chains, birds exert top-down effects in “trophic cascades.” ... More


Food web patterns and the parasite's Perspective

Michael V. K. Sukhdeo and Alexander D. Hernandez

in Parasitism and Ecosystems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198529873
eISBN:
9780191712777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529873.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Food webs are theoretical abstractions of the complex linkages and interactions that are thought to occur in nature. Although few real food webs have actually been characterized scientifically, there ... More


Indirect Evidence: Food Chain Equilibria

Roger Arditi and Lev R. Ginzburg

in How Species Interact: Altering the Standard View on Trophic Ecology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199913831
eISBN:
9780190267902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199913831.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter considers the theoretical equilibrium consequences of ratio-dependent and prey-dependent views and compares them with evidence from nature. It provides evidence, mostly from lakes and ... More


A good story: Media bias in trophic cascade research in Yellowstone National Park

Emma Marris

in Effective Conservation Science: Data Not Dogma

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198808978
eISBN:
9780191846687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808978.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

This chapter begins with a viral video about a trophic cascade initiated by the return of wolves to Yellowstone National Park. It then challenges the narrative of that video. How strong is the ... More


Community Effects of Fishing

Ken H. Andersen

in Fish Ecology, Evolution, and Exploitation: A New Theoretical Synthesis

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780691192956
eISBN:
9780691189260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691192956.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter uses the community model to repeat many of the classic impact calculations of a single stock on the entire community. Here, a focus is the appearance of trophic cascades initiated by the ... More


Anthropogenic Effects on Kelp Forests

David R. Schiel and Michael S. Foster

in The Biology and Ecology of Giant Kelp Forests

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780520278868
eISBN:
9780520961098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520278868.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the predation and trophic cascades in kelp communities, focusing on the relationships between sea urchins and their predators. It is often assumed that the natural state of kelp ... More


Ecology of Streams of the Toolik Region

William B. Bowden, Bruce J. Peterson, Linda A. Deegan, Alex D. Huryn, Jonathan P. Benstead, Heidi Golden, Michael Kendrick, Stephanie M. Parker, Elissa Schuett, Joseph J. Vallino, and John E. Hobbie

in Alaska's Changing Arctic: Ecological Consequences for Tundra, Streams, and Lakes

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199860401
eISBN:
9780190267889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199860401.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the basic ecology of streams in the Toolik Region. It provides information gathered from monitoring year-to-year variability and to identify long-term changes in the ecology of ... More


What next? Rewilding as a radical future for the British countryside

Christopher J. Sandom and David W. Macdonald

in Wildlife Conservation on Farmland Volume 1: Managing for nature on lowland farms

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780198745488
eISBN:
9780191807558
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198745488.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

Rewilding is an optimistic environmental agenda to reverse the loss of biodiversity and reconnect society with nature. This chapter explores Britain’s ecological history, back to the Last ... More


Salt Marshes: A Disappearing Act

Catherine Owen Koning, Sharon M. Ashworth, and Catherine Owen Koning

in Wading Right In: Discovering the Nature of Wetlands

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780226554211
eISBN:
9780226554495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226554495.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

The consequences of saltmarsh destruction and restoration are brought to bear in the story of Pine Creek Marsh. Pine Creek Marsh was cut off from tidal influence, which led to a cascade of plant and ... More


Advances in understanding the physiology, behaviour, and ecology of sea otters

James A. Estes, M. Tim Tinker, and Terrie M. Williams

in Biology and Conservation of Musteloids

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198759805
eISBN:
9780191820519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198759805.003.0023
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Sea otters are the only fully marine-living mustelid and the smallest extant marine mammal. They have the highest mass-specific metabolic rate of any marine mammal, which coupled with the lack of ... More


Where The Wild Things Were: Re-wilding and the Sixth Extinction

Lindsey Gillson

in Biodiversity Conservation and Environmental Change: Using palaeoecology to manage dynamic landscapes in the Anthropocene

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780198713036
eISBN:
9780191781421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713036.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

The effects of global warming, habitat loss, and alien species are pushing extinction rates to new heights. We are currently in the midst of a mass extinction event, which began in the Pleistocene ... More


The state of seven seas

Christopher L. J. Frid and Bryony A. Caswell

in Marine Pollution

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198726289
eISBN:
9780191843815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198726289.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Seven regions are described in terms of their pollution history, other synergistic human pressures, the current challenges and management approaches. Although the timing and detailed impacts vary, ... More


The Importance of Predation and Parasitism

David Ward

in The Biology of Deserts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2016
ISBN:
9780198732754
eISBN:
9780191796982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732754.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

A number of excellent experimental studies have demonstrated the importance of predation in structuring desert ecosystems, and how predation and competition interact to structure desert communities. ... More


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