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Physicists Multiply, Social Scientists Add—Even When It Does Not Add Up

Rein Taagepera

in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199534661
eISBN:
9780191715921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

Most physics equations include few variables and at most one freely adjustable constant, which multiply or divide. In contrast, regression equations favored in social sciences often have many ... More


Why We Should Shift to Symmetric Regression

Rein Taagepera

in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199534661
eISBN:
9780191715921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

When data are scattered, Ordinary Least-Squares (OLS) regression produces two quite distinct regression lines – one for y versus x and another for x versus y – and both may differ appreciably from ... More


AN ANALOGUE OF BETH'S THEOREM IN NORMAL EXTENSIONS OF THE MODAL LOGIC K4

D.M. Gabbay and L. Maksimova

in Interpolation and Definability: Modal and Intuitionistic Logics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198511748
eISBN:
9780191705779
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198511748.003.0011
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Beth's theorems state that in the classical predicate logic, any implicitly definable predicate is explicitly definable. This chapter proves an analogue of this theorem for all extensions of K4. It ... More


The Typology of Semantic Alignment

Mark Donohue and Søren Wichmann (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199238385
eISBN:
9780191716768
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238385.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

Semantic alignment refers to a type of language that has two means of morphosyntactically encoding the arguments of intransitive predicates, typically treating these as an agent or as a patient of a ... More


Lexicon versus Syntax *: Evidence from Morphological Causatives

Julia Horvath and Tal Siloni

in Lexical Semantics, Syntax, and Event Structure

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199544325
eISBN:
9780191720536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544325.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

The chapter empirically sorts out morphological alternations often grouped together under the label causativization. A careful analysis of Japanese versus Hungarian morphological causatives reveals ... More


GENERIC ULTRAFILTERS AND TRANSITIVE MODELS OF ZFC

John L. Bell

in Set Theory: Boolean-Valued Models and Independence Proofs

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568520
eISBN:
9780191717581
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568520.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

The construction of V(B) is relativized to transitive models of ZFC and shown to give rise to actual models of ZFC, in which various set-theoretic assertions are falsified. Boolean-valued set theory ... More


(A)structuring Atelicity

Hagit Borer

in Structuring Sense Volume 2: The Normal Course of Events

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199263929
eISBN:
9780191718168
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199263929.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This chapter turns to the structure of atelic events, focusing especially on the structure of atelic transitives. Topics discussed include atelic transitives and partitive case, and the behaviour of ... More


Intensional Transitives

Graeme Forbes

in Attitude Problems: An Essay On Linguistic Intensionality

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199274949
eISBN:
9780191699801
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274949.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter focuses on the semantics of intensional transitive verbs (itv's) ‘Fear’ is transitive, or has a standard transitive use, since it has a standard use in which it takes a direct object (it ... More


Why conventional management does not work

Charles W. Fowler

in Systemic Management: Sustainable Human Interactions with Ecosystems and the Biosphere

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199540969
eISBN:
9780191716249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199540969.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Chapter 4 shows that conventional management lacks objectivity, fails to account for complexity, involves erroneous belief systems, and embodies illogical thinking—all problems largely avoided in ... More


Exploring Transitivity: Part I

Larry S. Temkin

in Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199759446
eISBN:
9780199932214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199759446.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter continues the exploration of transitivity by assessing the nature of two other normative relations, the permissibility relation “is permissible to do rather than,” and the obligatoriness ... More


Expected Utility Theory/Expected Value Theory

Larry S. Temkin

in Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199759446
eISBN:
9780199932214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199759446.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

The previous chapters offered a number of “impossibility” results. It was argued that certain deeply held views are incompatible, so that, seemingly, at least one of the views in question must be ... More


Juggling to Preserve Transitivity

Larry S. Temkin

in Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199759446
eISBN:
9780199932214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199759446.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

Numerous arguments have been presented illustrating that a number of beliefs that people hold about ideals and the nature of the good are incompatible. Among these beliefs are various Axioms of ... More


Conclusion

Larry S. Temkin

in Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199759446
eISBN:
9780199932214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199759446.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This concluding chapter takes stock of the main topics canvassed, some of the lessons learned, and what remains to be done. It then revisits the question of whether the meaning or logic of ... More


Logic

Alan Weir

in Truth Through Proof: A Formalist Foundation for Mathematics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199541492
eISBN:
9780191594915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199541492.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Gappy semantics is used to model indeterminacy with ‘upwards falsity-preservation’ emphasized as much as downwards truth-preservation. This two-way idea is generalized to multiple premiss/multiple ... More


On the Germanic properties of Old French

Eric Mathieu

in Historical Syntax and Linguistic Theory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199560547
eISBN:
9780191721267
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199560547.003.0020
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology, Historical Linguistics

This chapter shows that, in addition to V2, Stylistic Fronting and Quirky subjects, Old French had the following Germanic properties: Object Shift and Transitive Expletive Constructions. All these ... More


Propositionalism

Graeme Forbes

in Attitude Problems: An Essay On Linguistic Intensionality

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199274949
eISBN:
9780191699801
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274949.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The discussion of the previous chapter intimates that the central problem raised by intensional transitive verbs is that of accounting for notional readings of verb phrases (vp's) they head, in ... More


Verbs of Creation and Depiction

Graeme Forbes

in Attitude Problems: An Essay On Linguistic Intensionality

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199274949
eISBN:
9780191699801
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274949.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The proposal that verbs of creation in progressive aspect be given the same semantic treatment as intensional transitives generally, is found in (Bennett 1977) and is worked out in a Montagovian way ... More


Substitutivity

Graeme Forbes

in Attitude Problems: An Essay On Linguistic Intensionality

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199274949
eISBN:
9780191699801
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274949.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Referential opacity is the term commonly used for the phenomenon of substitution-failure, for example, the failure of ‘seek/fear/caricature Hyde’ to entail ‘seek/fear/caricature Jekyll’. Richard ... More


Context and the Attitudes: Meaning in Context, Volume 1

Mark Richard

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199557950
eISBN:
9780191747267
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557950.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book collects thirteen seminal essays on semantics and propositional attitudes. These chapters develop a nuanced account of the semantics and pragmatics of our talk about such attitudes, an ... More


Social Knowledge

Keith Jensen, Joan B. Silk, Kristin Andrews, Redouan Bshary, Dorothy L. Cheney, Nathan Emery, Charlotte K. Hemelrijk, Kay Holekamp, Derek C. Penn, Josef Perner, and Christoph Teufel

in Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative Cognition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262016636
eISBN:
9780262298988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016636.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The social milieus of animals can be complex, ranging from almost completely asocial to monogamous pairs (no mean feat) to entire societies. To adapt to a constantly shifting environment of ... More


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