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The Endgame of the Negotiations and the Future of an Enlarged European Union

Milada Anna Vachudova

in Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage, and Integration After Communism

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199241194
eISBN:
9780191602382
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241198.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

Ten new members, eight of them post-communist states, joined the EU on 1 May 2004. This chapter takes up three issues that will shape the future of an enlarged EU. First, the EU’s active leverage has ... More


Alcohol as a Cause of Mortality in Societies Undergoing Rapid Transition to Market Economy  

Jacek Moskalewicz, Bogdan Wojtyniak, and Daniel Rabczenko

in The Mortality Crisis in Transitional Economies

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297413
eISBN:
9780191685347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297413.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter focuses on the contributions or effects of alcohol consumption to mortality rate at the time when Estonia, former GDR, Poland, Russia, Lithuania and Latvia are at the rapid pace of ... More


Population Crisis and Rising Mortality in Transitional Russia

Vladimir M. Shkolnikov and Giovanni Andrea Cornia

in The Mortality Crisis in Transitional Economies

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297413
eISBN:
9780191685347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297413.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Among the countries covered by this study, Russia is one of the most hard hit by the mortality crises that happened during the transition period. A number of factors such as the two million excess ... More


The Strategic Response of Pacific Gas and Electric Corporation to Partial Deregulation during the California Power Crisis

Paul W. MacAvoy

in The Unsustainable Costs of Partial Deregulation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300121285
eISBN:
9780300137750
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300121285.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

This chapter describes the extreme case of the performance of Pacific Gas and Electric Corporation (PG&E), which was driven into bankruptcy when deregulated wholesale markets realized prices higher ... More


Withdrawal Agreement: General Provisions

Michael Dougan

in The UK's Withdrawal from the EU: A Legal Analysis

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780198833475
eISBN:
9780191871924
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833475.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, EU Law

This chapter provides a critical analysis of the overall Withdrawal Agreement reached between the EU and the UK. The focus for discussion is the post-withdrawal, status quo ‘transition period’—during ... More


Rewriting the Revolution

Joel Gordon

in Nasser's Blessed Movement: Egypt's Free Officers and the July RevolutionWith a New Introduction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9789774167782
eISBN:
9781617978180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
American University in Cairo Press
DOI:
10.5743/cairo/9789774167782.003.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This book examines the formative period of the Egyptian revolution that began on July 23, 1952, when the Free Officers, a group of army officers led by Muhammad Nagib and Gamal Abdel Nasser, staged a ... More


The World Bank and Development

in The Political Economy of the World Bank: The Early Years

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804760652
eISBN:
9780804770798
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804760652.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter examines the early years of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), commonly known as the World Bank, in the 1940s and the 1950s. It explains that the IBRD was ... More


The Initial Emergence of Reform in 1956

Wu Jinglian, Ma Guochuan, Xiaofeng Hua, and Nancy Hearst

in Whither China?: Restarting the Reform Agenda

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780190223151
eISBN:
9780190223182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190223151.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, International

The original economic institution in China, initially implemented in 1949, was unlike the centrally planned economy in the Soviet Union. It was a system with state control of all “commanding ... More


Agreement on Textiles and Clothing

Petros C. Mavroidis

in The Regulation of International Trade: The WTO Agreements on Trade in Goods

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780262029995
eISBN:
9780262333719
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029995.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter focuses on the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, the second sector-specific agreement that remained outside the GATT and was introduced to the WTO discipline following the end of the ... More


Disintegration through Law: Brexit, Article 50, and the Court

Kieran Bradley

in Contemporary Challenges to EU Legality

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
June 2021
ISBN:
9780192898050
eISBN:
9780191924514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192898050.003.0006
Subject:
Law, EU Law

The existence of an unconditional right of withdrawal is antithetical to the idea of European integration, which is predicated on an ‘ever closer union’, and the expectation that Union rights become ... More


Causal Non-Symmetry

Paul Noordhof

in A Variety of Causes

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780199251469
eISBN:
9780191892271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199251469.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Causation is a non-symmetric rather than asymmetric relation. Different bases of causal non-symmetry include an asymmetry of overdetermination, the independence condition, and agency. Causal ... More


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