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Biological Circuit Components

Richard M. Murray

in Biomolecular Feedback Systems

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161532
eISBN:
9781400850501
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161532.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter describes some simple circuit components that have been constructed in E. coli cells using the technology of synthetic biology and then considers a more complicated circuit that already ... More


Ion pumps and exchangers

PETER K. STYS, STEPHEN G. WAXMAN, and BRUCE R. RANSOM

in The Axon: Structure, Function and Pathophysiology

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195082937
eISBN:
9780199865802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082937.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Excitable cells are dependent on adequate transmembrane ion gradients for normal function. Electrochemical gradients of the major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and anions (Cl- and HCO3 ... More


Bernard W. Agranoff

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography Volume 6

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195380101
eISBN:
9780199864362
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380101.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter presents an autobiography of neuroscientist Bernard W. Agranoff. Agranoff initially became known for his elucidation of the enzymatic synthesis of inositol lipids via the liponucleotide ... More


Using Psychology to See the Brain in Economics

Paul W. Glimcher

in Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199744251
eISBN:
9780199863433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744251.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter develops the first of several linkages between economics, psychology, and neuroscience. First, it provides an overview of classical psychophysics. Second, it demonstrates that the ... More


Nmda Receptors

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Ionotropic glutamate receptors, including NMDA receptors, mediate most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. When NMDA receptors are activated by membrane ... More


Interdependence: Biology and Beyond

Kriti Sharma

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780823265527
eISBN:
9780823266913
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823265527.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In Interdependence, biologist Kriti Sharma offers a tightly argued, richly exemplified, and impressively coherent alternative to the popular view that interdependence simply means “independent things ... More


Hair Cell Transduction

Jay M. Goldberg, Victor J. Wilson, Kathleen E. Cullen, Dora E. Angelaki, Dianne M. Broussard, Jean A. Büttner-Ennever, Kikuro Fukushima, and Lloyd B. Minor

in The Vestibular System: A Sixth Sense

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195167085
eISBN:
9780199932153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195167085.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Vestibular organs, lateral lines, and a variety of vibratory and auditory organs are all examples of hair-cell mechanoreceptors. The frequency ranges over which hair cells operate indicate their ... More


The genome is mobile

Antonio Fontdevila

in The Dynamic Genome: A Darwinian Approach

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199541379
eISBN:
9780191728532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199541379.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Developmental Biology

The importance of transposable elements (TEs) in shaping the genome is discussed. Two main aspects are highlighted; one refers to their capacity for producing mutations; the other emphasises the TEs ... More


Membranes as sites of energy transduction Membranes as sites of energy transduction

Timothy J. Bradley

in Animal Osmoregulation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198569961
eISBN:
9780191728273
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569961.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Because membranes are impermeable to most solutes, gradients can be established and maintained between intra- and extracellular compartments. These gradients serve as forms of energy storage that can ... More


Neurobiology of Nociceptors

Carlos Belmonte and Fernando Cervero (eds)

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523345
eISBN:
9780191724527
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523345.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This is a comprehensive review of all aspects of nociceptor function, including the structure of nociceptor endings, their neurochemistry, and evolutionary considerations. It deals with the ... More


Differential abnormalities in signal transduction in migraine and cluster headache

J. de Belleroche

in Migraine: A Spectrum of Ideas

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192618108
eISBN:
9780191724305
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192618108.003.0023
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Over the past few years a biochemical approach has been used to study the pathogenesis of migraine by looking at transduction mechanisms which would be common to many agents that are putative trigger ... More


. Second Messengers (1951–1990)

Joseph D. Robinson

in Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission: Bridging the Gaps (1890-1990)

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195137613
eISBN:
9780199848164
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137613.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter discusses the concept of a second messenger which arose from studies on the hormonal control of glucose availability and matured into appreciations of general mechanisms for signal ... More


Signal Transduction and Protein Phosphorylation

Howard Schulman

in The Cortical Neuron

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195083309
eISBN:
9780199847464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195083309.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Higher functions of the central nervous system are based on communication between functional units consisting of many neurons. Communication within and between functional units of neurons is largely ... More


Semi-Supervised Learning Using Semi-Definite Programming

De Bie Tijl and Cristianini Nello

in Semi-Supervised Learning

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262033589
eISBN:
9780262255899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033589.003.0007
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter discusses an alternative approach that is based on a convex relaxation of the optimization problem associated with support vector machine transduction. The result is a semi-definite ... More


Single cell techniques

Alison M. Gurney

in The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192623874
eISBN:
9780191724671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192623874.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

By isolating single cells from the smooth muscle or endothelial layer of a blood vessel, it is possible to study signal transduction mechanisms in these cells without the need to worry about indirect ... More


Signal transduction in nociceptors: general principles

Belmonte Carlos

in Neurobiology of Nociceptors

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523345
eISBN:
9780191724527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523345.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Sensory transduction is the mechanism by which external physical changes are transformed into internal biochemical and/or electrical signals. Such electrical signals are propagated and processed ... More


Intracellular messengers and signal transduction in nociceptors

Bevan Stuart

in Neurobiology of Nociceptors

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523345
eISBN:
9780191724527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523345.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Signal transduction in nociceptive sensory neurones involves a wide range of underlying mechanisms. In undamaged tissues, noxious external stimuli (thermal or mechanical) act rapidly to evoke a train ... More


An overview of serotonin neurochemistry and neuroanatomy

Dennis L. Murphy

in 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Psychiatry: A Spectrum of Ideas

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192620118
eISBN:
9780191724725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192620118.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

In the past few years, the predominant focus of basic science and clinical investigations of serotonergic neurotransmission has been the many serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors and their ... More


Eye movement recording

Han Collewijn

in Vision Research: A Practical Guide to Laboratory Methods

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523192
eISBN:
9780191688850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523192.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on the methods involved in recording eye movements. The movement of eyeballs are transduced into stored signals so as to obtain a permanent record of the eye movements. ... More


Comparative Anatomy and Function of Hearing in Aquatic Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds

Thomas Hetherington

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the structure and function of hearing in aquatic amphibians, reptiles, and birds. It examines patterns of evolutionary change in the auditory systems of amphibians, reptiles, ... More


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