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The Genetics of Evolutionary Novelties

Günter P. Wagner

in Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156460
eISBN:
9781400851461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156460.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines the molecular genetics of evolutionary novelties. In particular, it investigates which molecular mechanisms might be involved in the origination of novel gene regulatory ... More


Cell Types and Their Origins

Günter P. Wagner

in Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156460
eISBN:
9781400851461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156460.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines the developmental evolution of cell types, the lowest level of biological organization for which questions of identity (that is, cell identity) play a major role. Higher ... More


The animal in the genome: comparative genomics and evolution

Richard R. Copley

in Animal Evolution: Genomes, Fossils, and Trees

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199549429
eISBN:
9780191721601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549429.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Developmental Biology

Comparisons between completely sequenced metazoan genomes have generally emphasized how similar their encoded protein content is, even when the comparison is between phyla. Given the manifest ... More


Redox Signaling and Vascular Function

J. Will Langston, Magdalena L. Circu, and Tak Yee Aw

in Neurovascular Medicine: Pursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195326697
eISBN:
9780199864874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0019
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Over the last two decades, reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling has emerged as an important regulator of cell function. The growing interest in the link between redox signaling and vascular function ... More


Molecular regulation of early forebrain and cortical development

David J. Price and David J. Willshaw

in Mechanisms of Cortical Development

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780192624277
eISBN:
9780191723735
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192624277.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Over the past few decades, higher mammals with larger and more advanced brains, such as cats and primates, have been studied by many scientists interested in the development of the cerebral cortex. ... More


The ABC Model in Evolution

Beverley J. Glover

in Understanding Flowers and Flowering: An integrated approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565970
eISBN:
9780191714009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565970.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Flower development operates through the activities of a set of transcription factors regulating the structural genes necessary for correct organ development in the correct position. The majority of ... More


Control of myelin gene expression

Lynn D. Hudson, Nerissa Ko, and Jin G. Kim

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter focuses on the most recent efforts on the transcription front to unravel the means by which glial cells achieve their wraps. It begins with an overview of the coordinate control of ... More


Molecular mechanisms of sex determination

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

in The Evolution of Sex Determination

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter first describes the overall structure of sex-determination cascades and the function of the main upstream and downstream actors (Section 3.1). Given the fundamental bipotentiality of ... More


The basic mechanism of gene transcription

John C. Lucchesi

in Epigenetics, Nuclear Organization & Gene Function: With implications of epigenetic regulation and genetic architecture for human development and health

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780198831204
eISBN:
9780191869266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831204.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Transcription is initiated by factors that interact with RNA polymerases and recruit them to specific sites, unwind the DNA molecules and allow the synthesis of RNA transcripts complementary to one ... More


Ingenious Genes: How Gene Regulation Networks Evolve to Control Development

Roger Sansom

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262195812
eISBN:
9780262298209
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195812.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Each of us is a collection of more than ten trillion cells, busy performing tasks crucial to our continued existence. Gene regulation networks, consisting of a subset of genes called transcription ... More


Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Brain Aromatase Expression

Nobuhiro Harada and Shin-ichiro Honda

in Brain Aromatase, Estrogens, and Behavior

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199841196
eISBN:
9780199979837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199841196.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Aromatase is expressed not only in gonadal tissues but also in nongonadal tissues including the brain, and participates in various tissue-specific functions through local production of estrogens. To ... More


Floral development: an integrated view

Hicham Chahtane, Grégoire Denay, Julia Engelhorn, Marie Monniaux, Edwige Moyroud, Fanny Moreau, Cristel Carles, Gabrielle Tichtinsky, Chloe Zubieta, and François Parcy

in From Molecules to Living Organisms: An Interplay Between Biology and Physics: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches School of Physics: Volume 102, July 2014

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198752950
eISBN:
9780191814426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198752950.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This chapter reviews our current knowledge about the development of flowers in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. It describes how a flower develops at the morphological level and the nature of ... More


Enhancing flower colour

Beverley Glover

in Understanding Flowers and Flowering, Second Edition

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199661596
eISBN:
9780191779473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661596.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Ecology

The production of coloured tissues, particularly insect-attracting petals, depends upon the synthesis of pigments. However, very few flowers are coloured simply by the synthesis of one single ... More


Possible Precursors of Syntactic Components in Other Species

Hilliard Austin T. and White Stephanie A.

in Biological Foundations and Origin of Syntax

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013567
eISBN:
9780262258586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013567.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

As a uniquely human phenotype, language appears to be a wholesale innovation whose evolutionary and neurobiological basis may be studied only using noninvasive techniques. Alternatively, the ... More


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