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Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade

Jagdish Bhagwati

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195331653
eISBN:
9780199851850
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331653.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This book shines a critical light on preferential trade agreements (PTAs), revealing how the rapid spread of PTAs endangers the world trading system. Numbering by now well over 300, and rapidly ... More


Classification and Governance: Policy 1

Ruben Lee

in What is an Exchange?: Automation, Management, and Regulation of Financial Markets

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297048
eISBN:
9780191685309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297048.003.0012
Subject:
Business and Management, Finance, Accounting, and Banking, Political Economy

This chapter addresses the issue of how trading systems should be classified and governed. The chapter is composed of three sections. In the first, the criteria that the Securities and Exchange ... More


The Trading System in Perspective

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Chapter 1 makes up the first part of the book. It presents a brief historical overview of the evolution of the multilateral trading system and introduces the basic functions of the trade regime and ... More


Black Hole

Ranald C. Michie

in The London Stock Exchange: A History

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199242559
eISBN:
9780191596643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199242550.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History, Financial Economics

The Big Bang described in the last chapter appeared to have answered the doubts over the future of the London Stock Exchange, but from the late 1980s onwards into the 1990s, it both waned in ... More


Information and Competition: Policy

Ruben Lee

in What is an Exchange?: Automation, Management, and Regulation of Financial Markets

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297048
eISBN:
9780191685309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297048.003.0011
Subject:
Business and Management, Finance, Accounting, and Banking, Political Economy

This chapter examines various key issues concerning information and competition. The chapter is composed of three sections. The first presents some general comments on the nature and role of ... More


Classification and Market Structure: Law and Regulation

Ruben Lee

in What is an Exchange?: Automation, Management, and Regulation of Financial Markets

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297048
eISBN:
9780191685309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297048.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Finance, Accounting, and Banking, Political Economy

This chapter examines laws and regulations that specify how trading systems should be classified, and how those elements of their market structure, apart from the dissemination of their prices and ... More


Institutional Efficiency and Coherence in the Global Trading System

Kent Jones

in The Doha Blues: Institutional Crisis and Reform in the WTO

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195378825
eISBN:
9780199852598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378825.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

The ability of developing countries to comply with the new requirements of trade liberalization is questioned because developing countries are known to lack trade and trade policy infrastructure. ... More


Prelude to Change, 1970–1979

Ranald C. Michie

in The London Stock Exchange: A History

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199242559
eISBN:
9780191596643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199242550.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History, Financial Economics

The first section of this chapter outlines the growing threats to the London Stock Exchange through the 1970s, including the ability of its members to block new proposals by the Council of the Stock ... More


WTO and the Interests of Developing Countries

Kent Jones

in Who's Afraid of the WTO?

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195166163
eISBN:
9780199849819
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195166163.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

This chapter focuses on the interests of developing countries in the GATT/WTO system. In view of all the evidence, it should be clear that trade is important to developing countries and that their ... More


From the GATT to the WTO and Beyond

S. P. Shukla

in Governing Globalization: Issues and Institutions

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199254033
eISBN:
9780191698187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199254033.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter analyses the evolution of the international trading system from its inception as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1947 to its latest incarnation as the World Trade ... More


The Multilateral Trading System

Sylvia Ostry

in Oxford Handbook of International Business

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241828
eISBN:
9780191596834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241821.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The main changes in the multilateral world‐trading system since and including the GATT Uruguay Round in 1994 are summarized, and the most urgent reforms needed to keep the system going are ... More


China and the Multilateral Trading System

Robert Z. Lawrence

in China, Asia, and the New World Economy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199235889
eISBN:
9780191717109
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235889.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

This chapter examines the implications of China's emergence for the global trading system. It asks whether China's bilateral and regional initiatives might undermine the multilateral trading order ... More


Regional Integration

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter deals with one of the most important exceptions to the most‐favoured‐nation (MFN) rule allowed by the WTO (World Trade Organization): regional integration agreements (RIAs). Almost all ... More


Integrating Developing Countries and Economies in Transition

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

A brief review is presented of the history of developing country involvement in GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) and the experience of the first five years of the WTO (World Trade ... More


Institutional Friction in the Doha Development Round

Kent Jones

in The Doha Blues: Institutional Crisis and Reform in the WTO

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195378825
eISBN:
9780199852598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378825.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Although the WTO continued what the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has started, WTO differed from GATT in the following features: the single undertaking in negotiated multilateral ... More


Conclusion: The Gains from Trade and the Global Commons

Kent Jones

in Who's Afraid of the WTO?

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195166163
eISBN:
9780199849819
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195166163.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

The chapter concludes by summarizing the case for a focused WTO dedicated to trade liberalization, with recommendations for improving the world trading system and rejuvenating the political coalition ... More


The European Securities Industry. Further Evidence on the Roadmap to Integration

Barbara Alemanni, Giuseppe Lusignani, and Marco Onado

in Investor Protection in Europe: Corporate Law Making, The MiFID and Beyond

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199202911
eISBN:
9780191707964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199202911.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

The integration of the European securities market is one of the most important and ambitious steps of the making of a unified financial system. This chapter shows why the issue of costs and ... More


Why PTAs Are a Pox on the World Trading System

Jagdish Bhagwati

in Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195331653
eISBN:
9780199851850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331653.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The worries over preferential trade agreements (PTAs) have increased dramatically in the past two decades as PTAs have proliferated. This chapter discusses the consequences of complexity of the ... More


The Role of Project-Based Mechanisms in the Future Carbon Market

Jos Cozijnsen and Michael J Coren

in Legal Aspects of Carbon Trading: Kyoto, Copenhagen, and beyond

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199565931
eISBN:
9780191722028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199565931.003.0025
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law, Private International Law

This chapter addresses the following question: ‘Can offset mechanisms help promote a low-carbon economy at a reasonable cost?’ The answer to this question is, yes. They are not the entirety of the ... More


Structural Equity

Aaron James

in Fairness in Practice: A Social Contract for a Global Economy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199846153
eISBN:
9780199933389
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199846153.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter elaborates the idea of “structural equity,” seen as the central fairness issue in international economic practice. It presents a deontological and contractualist conception of equity in ... More


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