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The Free Movement of Goods

Alec Stone Sweet

in The Judicial Construction of Europe

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199275533
eISBN:
9780191602009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019927553X.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

The previous chapter showed how transnational activity, the adjudication of the European Community (EC) law, and EC lawmaking had developed symbiotically to determine much of what is important about ... More


“Cada Casa, Un Mundo”: The Domestic Foundations of a Trading Community

Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert

in A Nation upon the Ocean Sea: Portugal’s Atlantic Diaspora and the Crisis of the Spanish Empire, 1492-1640

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195175691
eISBN:
9780199872060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195175691.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This chapter examines the inner dynamics of the Portuguese merchant houses and the worlds they contained. The members of Portuguese merchant houses maintained tight and lasting bonds among themselves ... More


Controlling Electronic Commerce Transactions

Robin Mansell and W. Edward Steinmueller

in Mobilizing the Information Society

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198295570
eISBN:
9780191685149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198295570.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology, Innovation

For several observers, electronic commerce or e-commerce accounts for the beginnings of a novel commercial paradigm, as well as of a new general paradigm for how the suppliers of various services and ... More


The Europeanization of Trade Mark Law †

Graeme Dinwoodie

in The Europeanization of Intellectual Property Law: Towards a European Legal Methodology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199665105
eISBN:
9780191758881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665105.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter highlights several features of the harmonisation of European trade mark law. Harmonisation has been “tight”, setting both minimum and maximum standards. The CJEU has interpreted the ... More


Scission Communities, Canal Company Laborer Communities, and Interpretations of Their Archaeological Presence in the Great Dismal Swamp

Daniel O. Sayers

in A Desolate Place for a Defiant People: The Archaeology of Maroons, Indigenous Americans, and Enslaved Laborers in the Great Dismal Swamp

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780813060187
eISBN:
9780813050607
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813060187.003.0005
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

Chapter 5 provides analysis of two archaeological Dismal Swamp sites. In the case of the nameless site, archaeology shows that an interior community persisted from ca. 1600 to the Civil War. It was ... More


Culture and European Union Law

Rachael Craufurd Smith (ed.)

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199275472
eISBN:
9780191699825
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199275472.001.0001
Subject:
Law, EU Law

This book explores the relationship between European Union law, culture, and identity. Community trade and competition rules have certainly affected many mundane, though highly formative, aspects of ... More


Trade and Traders in Mid-Victorian Liverpool: Mercantile Business and the Making of a World Port

Graeme Milne

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853236061
eISBN:
9781846314261
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/UPO9781846314261
Subject:
History, Economic History

This book charts the development of Liverpool's trade, shipping, and business culture in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. Using previously neglected evidence, it assesses the causes and ... More


Introduction: Boom, Bust, Crisis and Opportunity

in Trade and Traders in Mid-Victorian Liverpool: Mercantile Business and the Making of a World Port

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853236061
eISBN:
9781846314261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853236061.003.0001
Subject:
History, Economic History

This chapter, which addresses the previous efforts to investigate the Liverpool trading community, underlines the successes and limitations of earlier studies, and determines the avenues for further ... More


Insecurity, Information and Reputation

in Trade and Traders in Mid-Victorian Liverpool: Mercantile Business and the Making of a World Port

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853236061
eISBN:
9781846314261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853236061.003.0007
Subject:
History, Economic History

This chapter addresses questions of risk, reputation, and information, specifically investigating the backdrop of key issues cited by contemporaries in their complaints about the uncertainties of the ... More


Interest, Faction and Port Management

in Trade and Traders in Mid-Victorian Liverpool: Mercantile Business and the Making of a World Port

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853236061
eISBN:
9781846314261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853236061.003.0009
Subject:
History, Economic History

This chapter evaluates the connection between the trading community and the port authority. The interaction of factional interests with the scrutiny procedures of central government is important to ... More


An Overview of European Harmonization Measures in Intellectual Property Law

Richard Arnold

in The Europeanization of Intellectual Property Law: Towards a European Legal Methodology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199665105
eISBN:
9780191758881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665105.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter gives an overview over all EU directives and regulations in the area of intellectual property law. With respect to patent law it refers to international conventions such as the European ... More


International Trade in East Asia

Takatoshi Ito and Andrew K. Rose (eds)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226378961
eISBN:
9780226379005
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226379005.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

The practice of trading across international borders has undergone a series of changes with great consequences for the world trading community, the result of new trade agreements, a number of ... More


Shipping in an Era of Transition and Opportunity

in Trade and Traders in Mid-Victorian Liverpool: Mercantile Business and the Making of a World Port

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853236061
eISBN:
9781846314261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853236061.003.0002
Subject:
History, Economic History

This chapter reports the broader context of Liverpool shipping. It is shown that Liverpool remained committed to shipping. The users in Liverpool were more attached to steam than were its own ... More


Trust

in ‘Merely for Money’?: Business Culture in the British Atlantic, 1750–1815

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9781846318177
eISBN:
9781846317729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/UPO9781846317729.005
Subject:
History, Economic History

This chapter examines the issue of trust in British Atlantic trade during the period from 1750 to 1815. It considers the emotive nature of trust and discusses the distinction and interconnections ... More


Mercantile Specialization and Trading Communities: Economic Strategies in Roman Maritime Trade

Candace Rice

in Urban Craftsmen and Traders in the Roman World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198748489
eISBN:
9780191811104
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748489.003.0005
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter discusses the economic strategies of maritime traders. It starts from the observation that the epigraphic evidence for negotiatores suggests that specialization among traders was ... More


Grounds for Invalidity

David Stone

in European Union Design Law: A Practitioners' Guide

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198719298
eISBN:
9780191927409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198719298.003.0013
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Article 25 of the Regulation sets out all the grounds for invalidity for RCDs and unregistered Community designs. Article 11 of the Directive sets out relevantly identical provisions in relation ... More


European Union Trade Mark Law: The Directive and the Regulation

Alexander Mühlendahl, Dimitris Botis, Spyros Maniatis, and Imogen Wiseman

in Trade Mark Law in Europe

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198726050
eISBN:
9780191927508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198726050.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Trade mark law at the European Union (EU) level has developed following two parallel paths. One led to the harmonization of disparate national systems of trade mark protection; the other to the ... More


Jurisdiction

David Stone

in European Union Design Law: A Practitioners' Guide

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198719298
eISBN:
9780191927409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198719298.003.0022
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Community designs are, by definition, supranational. Therefore, every dispute concerning a Community design (registered or unregistered) will have an ‘international’ element to it. Thus, questions ... More


Historical Introduction

David Stone

in European Union Design Law: A Practitioners' Guide

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198719298
eISBN:
9780191927409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198719298.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Interest in an EU-wide design law dates back to the origins of the European Union. Realizing that early dream, however, has taken many decades. This chapter provides a brief overview of the ... More


The Timing of Confusion

Ilanah Fhima and Dev S. Gangjee

in The Confusion Test in European Trade Mark Law

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199674336
eISBN:
9780191932830
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199674336.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The conventional assumption in trade mark law is that the potential for confusion is assessed at the moment when a transactional decision is required. In ‘trade mark infringement cases in order to ... More


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