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Removing Barriers to Trade: Empirical Evidence

Michelle P. Egan

in Constructing a European Market: Standards, Regulation, and Governance

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199244058
eISBN:
9780191599132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199244057.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

Focuses on the costs of market fragmentation in Europe. It reviews the economic impact of removing barriers to trade as a result of divergent national standards, testing, and certification ... More


Constructing a European Market: Standards, Regulation, and Governance

Michelle Egan

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199244058
eISBN:
9780191599132
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199244057.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

The European Union's effort to create a single market involves the removal of trade barriers created by divergent national standards and regulations, which need to be reconciled to promote market ... More


Harmonization: The Slow Strategy Forward

Michelle P. Egan

in Constructing a European Market: Standards, Regulation, and Governance

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199244058
eISBN:
9780191599132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199244057.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

Focuses on early efforts in the 1960s and 1970s by the European Community to address trade barriers through the harmonization of national regulatory policies and practices. The push for harmonization ... More


The Reluctant Litigant: Japanese Trade Policy

Christina L. Davis

in Why Adjudicate?: Enforcing Trade Rules in the WTO

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691152752
eISBN:
9781400842513
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691152752.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines Japanese trade policy to promote market access for exports. It considers how the delegation of authority to the bureaucracy influences the choice of trade strategies by Japan. ... More


Case Studies in Standards Negotiations 1

Michelle P. Egan

in Constructing a European Market: Standards, Regulation, and Governance

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199244058
eISBN:
9780191599132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199244057.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

Provides a case‐study analysis of the operation of this new regulatory policy, with particular attention paid to the difficulties of reaching collective agreement on common European standards. Case ... More


International Trade in Services and Domestic Regulations: Necessity, Transparency, and Regulatory Diversity

Panagiotis Delimatsis

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199533152
eISBN:
9780191714528
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199533152.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

In 2005, the WTO Appellate Body ruled that the United States' total prohibition on cross-border gambling services was unlawful under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The questions ... More


Barriers to Trade in Services 1

Panagiotis Delimatsis

in International Trade in Services and Domestic Regulations: Necessity, Transparency, and Regulatory Diversity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199533152
eISBN:
9780191714528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199533152.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter reviews trade policy in services, which serves to introduce the reader not only to the peculiar role of domestic regulations in services trade, but also to the need to tackle the adverse ... More


A Political Economy Theory of International Trade Agreements

Edward D. Mansfield and Helen V. Milner

in Votes, Vetoes, and the Political Economy of International Trade Agreements

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691135298
eISBN:
9781400842537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691135298.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter presents a theory of the domestic political conditions that lead countries to enter into formal trade agreements. More specifically, it attempts to explain the establishment of ... More


Introduction

Christina L. Davis

in Why Adjudicate?: Enforcing Trade Rules in the WTO

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691152752
eISBN:
9781400842513
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691152752.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This book examines why democratic institutions for accountability encourage use of adjudication to resolve trade disputes. It argues that governments file a formal legal complaint for World Trade ... More


Why Do Discriminatory Trading Arrangements Exist?

Richard Pomfret

in The Economics of Regional Trading Arrangements

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199248872
eISBN:
9780191596797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199248877.003.0017
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Addresses the question of why RTAs exist. Section 1 lists four proximate explanations on the basis of the immediate consequences of RTAs. Section 2 draws on the political economy of trade barriers ... More


Trade in Services

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter starts with brief overviews of global trade flows in services, the barriers that restrict such trade, and the economics of service sector protection and liberalization. This is followed ... More


Conflict Management: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Adjudication

Christina L. Davis

in Why Adjudicate?: Enforcing Trade Rules in the WTO

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691152752
eISBN:
9781400842513
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691152752.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines the effectiveness of legal complaints to bring an end to trade disputes. Using quantitative data from the United States, it shows that when comparing similar kinds of disputes ... More


Dying to Dine—The Story of the Great Agricultural Barrier

Srividhya Ragavan

in Patent and Trade Disparities in Developing Countries

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199840670
eISBN:
9780199949786
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199840670.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter studies the second major issue that affects mankind, namely access to food. It outlines the barriers to trade and the tenets of the trade regime, and identifies subsidies as the worst ... More


Traditionalist Views and the Emergence of Revisionism

Robert M. Uriu

in Clinton and Japan: The Impact of Revisionism on US Trade Policy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199280568
eISBN:
9780191712814
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280568.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

In this chapter the author describes the “traditionalist” view that the Japanese economy was protected but could be opened through trade talks. More importantly, traditionalists argued that trade ... More


China and India: A Tale of Two Trade Integration Approaches

Przemyslaw Kowalski

in Emerging Giants: China and India in the World Economy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199575077
eISBN:
9780191722141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575077.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, South and East Asia

Despite the fact that China has gone further than India in terms of economic reform and opening, China's integration process so far remains characterized by a certain duality. On the one hand the ... More


Proliferating Preferential Trade Agreements

Jagdish Bhagwati

in Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195331653
eISBN:
9780199851850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331653.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Most preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are in the form of free trade agreements (FTAs), which is a rare few contain an added common external tariff that converts them into customs unions (CUs). ... More


Safeguards and Exceptions

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The various mechanisms allowing for the re‐imposition of trade barriers are discussed in this chapter, which summarizes the rules on––and the economics of––the use of instruments of contingent ... More


Sector‐Specific Multilateral Trade Agreements

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter looks at the major sector‐specific agreements that have been negotiated under the auspices of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), and in particular at agriculture, and ... More


Domestic Instruments

Petros C. Mavroidis

in Trade in Goods: The GATT and the Other Agreements Regulating Trade in Goods

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552139
eISBN:
9780191716591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552139.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter focuses on domestic instruments. Besides national treatment, Agreement On Technical Barriers To Trade (TBT), and Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Measures ... More


The Single Market and the Environment: From Issue Linkage to Political Choice

Albert Weale, Geoffrey Pridham, Michelle Cini, Dimitrios Konstadakopulos, Martin Porter, and Brendan Flynn

in Environmental Governance in Europe: An Ever Closer Ecological Union?

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199257478
eISBN:
9780191698460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199257478.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, European Union, Environmental Politics

Many of the arguments about the processes of European integration that were reviewed previously turn on the issue of spillover. In this chapter, the origins of the EU environmental policy in terms of ... More


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