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How Do I Know That It's Safe?

Daniel Strickman, Stephen P. Frances, and Mustapha Debboun

in Prevention of Bug Bites, Stings, and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195365771
eISBN:
9780199867677
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365771.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Natural History and Field Guides

Toxicology is a difficult scientific field that attempts to determine whether chemicals are harmful. There are many different ways that a chemical can cause harm, all influenced by the dosage and the ... More


Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Jerome O. Nriagu and Eric P. Skaar (eds)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Many parts of the world endemic for the most common infectious diseases have the highest prevalence rates of trace metal deficiencies and increasing rates of trace metal pollution. The co-clustering ... More


Selenium and Mercury: Their Interactions and Roles in Living Organisms

Tamara García-Barrera

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The essential or toxic character of the elements depends not only on their concentration, but also on the chemical form in which they occur. This is the case of arsenobetaine, which has limited ... More


Metals in the Environment as Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases: Gaps and Opportunities

M. Leigh Ackland, Julia Bornhorst, George V. Dedoussis, Rodney R. Dietert, Jerome O. Nriagu, Jozef M. Pacyna, and John M. Pettifor

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

By reducing immune function, trace metal deficiencies may substantially contribute to the global burden of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria. Human activities may be contributing to trace metal ... More


Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law

Carl F. Cranor

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074369
eISBN:
9780199852932
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074369.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This book in the philosophy of law and risk assessment is concerned with the topic of the standards of evidence in legal proceedings and regulatory decisions regarding the toxicity of chemicals. The ... More


Is Cannabis Safe?

Leslie L. Iversen

in The Science of Marijuana

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195328240
eISBN:
9780199864751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328240.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter examines the safety of cannabis. Topics discussed include toxicity, acute effects of cannabis, effects of long-term exposure to cannabis, and special hazards of smoked marijuana. It ... More


Methods for studying human-induced changes in estuaries

Donald S. McLusky and Michael Elliott

in The Estuarine Ecosystem: Ecology, Threats and Management

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525080
eISBN:
9780191728198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525080.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter looks at the assessment of biological change due to man's activities. It asks: what is normal situation and what are the limits of expected variability? Has there been a change from the ... More


Marijuana’s Health Effects

Mitch Earleywine

in Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195138931
eISBN:
9780199893270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195138931.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Psychopharmacology

Concerns about marijuana's potential impact on health have generated volumes of research, numerous conferences, and considerable controversy. This chapter addresses marijuana's toxicity, as well as ... More


Chemical Hazards

René Mendes

in Global Occupational Health

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195380002
eISBN:
9780199893881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380002.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes common classes of chemical hazards and some specific chemicals that are important in occupational health: 1) the gases that make up the chemical asphyxiants have in common the ... More


Cleaning Materials and Methods

Stephen Ashkin and Richard Ellis

in Safe and Healthy School Environments

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195179477
eISBN:
9780199864638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179477.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses green cleaning in schools. Clean schools minimize safety hazards and provide an optimal setting for learning. “Green cleaning” is an approach to cleaning designed to meet three ... More


Theories of Disgust

Colin McGinn

in The Meaning of Disgust

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199829538
eISBN:
9780199919482
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199829538.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Aesthetics

This chapter suggests that the core examples of disgust are provided by: putrefied flesh, feces, and wounds. Put in terms of processes, we have bodily decay, excretion, and injury to the body. By the ... More


The Function of Disgust

Colin McGinn

in The Meaning of Disgust

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199829538
eISBN:
9780199919482
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199829538.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Aesthetics

It is by no means clear what the biological function of disgust might be. The Darwinian taste-toxicity theory runs into obvious trouble: disgust cannot be viewed simply as a ... More


Webs: Aurora Levins Morales’s Animal, Vegetable, and Digital Ecologies

Suzanne Bost

in Shared Selves: Latinx Memoir and Ethical Alternatives to Humanism

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780252042799
eISBN:
9780252051654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5622/illinois/9780252042799.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter begins with an analysis of the conjoined humans, plants, and animals that “people” Levins Morales’s semi-autobiographical writings, ranging from her best-known early publications to her ... More


Non-competitive NMDA antagonists as drugs

L. L. IVERSEN and J. A. KEMP

in The NMDA Receptor

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192625021
eISBN:
9780191724701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192625021.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The ‘excitotoxic theory’ suggests that ischaemia-induced neuronal degeneration is caused, at least in part, by excessive release of glutamate and a subsequent overactivation of post-synaptic ... More


Ecotoxicology of Mercury in Fish and Wildlife: Recent Advances

Anton M. Scheuhammer, Niladri Basu, David C. Evers, Gary H. Heinz, Mark B. Sandheinrich, and Michael S. Bank

in Mercury in the Environment: Pattern and Process

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520271630
eISBN:
9780520951396
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520271630.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

A number of recent studies have documented subtle, yet potentially important effects of mercury on behavior, neurochemistry, and endocrine function in fish and wildlife at currently realistic levels ... More


The Satiating Effects of Cholecystokinin and Bombesin-Like Peptides

GERARD P. SMITH and JAMES GIBBS

in Satiation: From Gut to Brain

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195105155
eISBN:
9780199848263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195105155.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter reviews cholecystokinin and the bombesin-like peptides gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin B. The chapter discusses in detail the work with cholecystokinin that led to its ... More


The Possibility of Toxicity from Arsenic, and from Other Medicines

Ralph Colp Jr. M.D.

in Darwin's Illness

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813032313
eISBN:
9780813039237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813032313.003.0022
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In October 1971, John H. Winslow wrote a brochure entitled Darwin's Victorian Malady: Evidence for Its Medically Induced Origin. In it, Dr. Winslow rejected all previous explanations for Charles ... More


Conclusion

Bowen Paulle

in Toxic Schools: High-Poverty Education in New York and Amsterdam

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226066387
eISBN:
9780226066554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226066554.003.0007
Subject:
Education, Secondary Education

The Conclusion attempts to change the basic terms of the trans-Atlantic discussion about “failing ghetto schools.” While recalling several of the book’s core empirical findings, the main goal here is ... More


Xenobiotics

Christine M. Bridges and Raymond D. Semlitsch

in Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520235922
eISBN:
9780520929432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520235922.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

While a number of compounds have been reported as toxic to amphibians, until recently, there have been conspicuously few ecotoxicological studies concerning amphibians. Studies are now focusing on ... More


Nitrogen stress in the marine environment: from scarcity to surfeit

Erica B. Young and John A. Berges

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Marine organisms can experience conditions ranging from limiting supply of nitrogen in open ocean regions to toxicity of high concentrations of nitrogen associated with coastal eutrophication. ... More


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