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Chemicals and Hazardous Substances

David Vogel

in The Politics of Precaution: Regulating Health, Safety, and Environmental Risks in Europe and the United States

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691124162
eISBN:
9781400842568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691124162.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter looks at American and European policies toward the risks of chemicals and hazardous substances. The 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) significantly strengthened American chemical ... More


Introduction: Assessing Toxic Substances Through a Glass Darkly

Kristin Shrader-frechette General

in Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074369
eISBN:
9780199852932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074369.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter provides an overview of the topics discussed in the book and likens the assessment of toxic substances to the experience of peering through a glass darkly. The work is divided into five ... More


Joint Causation, Torts, and Administrative Law in Environmental Health Protections

Kristin Shrader-frechette General

in Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074369
eISBN:
9780199852932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074369.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The chapter addresses a problem that affects both regulatory and tort law efforts to control exposure to carcinogens. What should be done when a disease may be the result of “joint causation”? That ... More


Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law

Carl F. Cranor

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074369
eISBN:
9780199852932
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074369.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This book in the philosophy of law and risk assessment is concerned with the topic of the standards of evidence in legal proceedings and regulatory decisions regarding the toxicity of chemicals. The ... More


Toxicology

Robert Laumbach and Michael Gochfeld

in Occupational and Environmental Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190662677
eISBN:
9780190662707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662677.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes the basic principles of toxicology and their application to occupational and environmental health. Topics covered include pathways that toxic substances may take from sources ... More


Industrial Chemicals as Nuisances: The Rise of Environmental Health Laws and Their Limitations

Carl F. Cranor

in Tragic Failures: How and Why We are Harmed by Toxic Chemicals

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2017
ISBN:
9780190635756
eISBN:
9780190635787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190635756.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), which emerged from congressional legislation of the 1970s following the first Earth Day, was modeled on postmarket nuisance laws, in contrast to ... More


How Demands for Ideal Science Undermine the Public’s Health

Carl F. Cranor

in Tragic Failures: How and Why We are Harmed by Toxic Chemicals

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2017
ISBN:
9780190635756
eISBN:
9780190635787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190635756.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

It is tempting under postmarket laws to demand ideal evidence to ensure that health protections are scientifically well founded and that decisions to redress injuries in the tort law are correct. ... More


Introduction

Carl F. Cranor

in Tragic Failures: How and Why We are Harmed by Toxic Chemicals

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2017
ISBN:
9780190635756
eISBN:
9780190635787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190635756.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

This chapter provides vignettes of some people who have been harmed by toxic substances, and describes how difficult it has been to assess the risks of formaldehyde. Distinguishing between premarket ... More


Tragic Failures: How and Why We are Harmed by Toxic Chemicals

Carl Cranor

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2017
ISBN:
9780190635756
eISBN:
9780190635787
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190635756.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

The world is awash in chemicals created by fellow citizens, but we know little to nothing about them. Understanding whether even the most-prevalent ones are toxic would take decades. Many people have ... More


Chemical Ecology in Aquatic Systems

Christer Brönmark and Lars-Anders Hansson (eds)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199583096
eISBN:
9780191810091
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199583096.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

In recent years it has become increasingly clear that chemical interactions play a fundamental role in aquatic habitats and have far-reaching evolutionary and ecological consequences. A plethora of ... More


Evaluating Environmental Justice: Analytic Lessons from the Academic Literature and in Practice

Ronald J. Shadbegian and Ann Wolverton

in Failed Promises: Evaluating the Federal Government's Response to Environmental Justice

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028837
eISBN:
9780262327138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028837.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter analyzes the difficult challenges that arise when considering the environmental justice effects of federal rules and regulations. It complements the discussion in Chapter 4 by examining ... More


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