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The naming game: governance of the Domain Name System

Lee A. Bygrave, Susan Schiavetta, Hilde Thunem, Annebeth B. Lange, and Edward Phillips

in Internet Governance: Infrastructure and Institutions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199561131
eISBN:
9780191721199
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561131.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology, Political Economy

This chapter explicates the Domain Name System and the governance mechanisms attached to it. The first part of the chapter introduces the basic elements of the system. The second part of the chapter ... More


Controlling Internet Resources

Laura Denardis

in The Global War for Internet Governance

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780300181357
eISBN:
9780300182118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300181357.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter explores the technologically complex and historically contentious area of the control of critical Internet resources (CIRs) necessary for the day-to-day operation of the Internet. It ... More


Germany (‘.de’)

Torsten Bettinger

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0018
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Disputes arising under trademark and competition law owing to the registration and use of domain names have become commonplace in German courts. Following a phase of widespread legal uncertainty, ... More


Hong Kong (‘.hk’)

Hong Xue

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0020
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The current trademark law is the Trademarks Ordinance (TMO, Chapter 559) and the Trademarks Rules (Chapter 559A). The TMO is modeled on the trademark laws of the countries of the European Union, in ... More


Original gTLDs: Registration Procedures, Registration Agreements, And Dispute Resolution

Torsten Bettinger

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Before ICANN adopted the New gTLD Program, two types of gTLDs could be distinguished within the gTLDs: sponsored TLDs (sTLDs) and unsponsored TLDs (uTLDs). The uTLDs are subject to any particular ... More


Switzerland (‘.ch’)

Gallus Joller

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0037
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In Switzerland, the protection of distinctive signs is governed by the laws on trademarks, company names, names, and unfair competition. The following sets out these legal bases and the signs they ... More


Israel (‘.il’)

Ellen B Shankman

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0023
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In Israel, trademarks are governed by both legislation and by common law. Rights are created by the first to file or use within the jurisdiction. Registration is not mandatory to establish rights ... More


Italy (‘.it’)

Philipp Fabbio

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0024
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Statutory provisions dealing specifically with domain names are found in the Codice della Proprietà Industriale (‘the CPI’),1 ss 12(1)(c), 22, 118(6), and 133. Sections 12(1)(c) and 22 define the ... More


People’s Republic of China (‘.cn’)

Lian Yunze and Liu Yuping

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0028
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In China, trademarks are governed by the Trademark Law (amended in 2001) and the Regulations for Implementation of the Trademark Law (amended in 2002), which provide that any natural person, legal ... More


Russian Federation (‘.ru’ and ‘.рф’)

Iouri Kobiako von Gamm and Natalia Gulyaeva

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0032
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

To date, the Russian legislature has not adopted any specific statutory provisions on domain law, and therefore conflicts arising from domain names containing third-party trademarks are governed by ... More


Netherlands (‘.nl’)

Adonna Alkema

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0026
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In the Netherlands, there is no legislation dealing with the registration and use of domain names. Domain name conflicts are therefore decided on the basis of existing laws, such as laws regarding ... More


Singapore (‘.sg’)

S.C. Tan Tee Jim

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0033
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Under Singapore law, protection for trade marks may be available both under the Trade Marks Act (Cap. 332, 2005 Rev Ed ‘TMA’) and at common law. These two systems function independently of each ... More


The Republic of Korea (‘.kr’)

Ho-Hyun Nahm

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0031
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Trademark rights in Korea are based on registration. The Trademark Decree was promulgated in 1908 and the Trademark Act was firstly enacted and enforced on November 28, 1949. Since that time, the ... More


Portugal (‘.pt’)

Alexandre L Dias Pereira and Carla Valério

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0030
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In Portugal, several intellectual property (IP) rights are protected, including both trademarks and logotypes. Personal names, as well as literary and artistic names, company names and names of ... More


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