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Top-Down Control over the Motor Cortex

Rogier B. Mars, Franz-Xaver Neubert, and Matthew F. S. Rushworth

in Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016438
eISBN:
9780262298490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016438.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter reviews recent evidence of top-down control over the motor cortex during action selection under conflict and action inhibition and describes the role of the pre-supplementary motor area ... More


The Minimal Control Principle

Niels Taatgen

in Integrated Models of Cognitive Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195189193
eISBN:
9780199847457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189193.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

Control in cognitive models is usually fully internal and tied to a goal representation. To explain human flexibility and robustness in task performance, however, control should be shared between the ... More


Ways of Action Science

Wolfgang Prinz

in The Pragmatic Turn: Toward Action-Oriented Views in Cognitive Science

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262034326
eISBN:
9780262333290
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034326.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter argues that an action-oriented view of cognition is nice to have, but not enough. The study of cognition most certainly needs to be extended to include action. However, the study of ... More


Introduction: The Management of Foreign Aid

Dan Honig

in Navigation by Judgment: Why and When Top Down Management of Foreign Aid Doesn't Work

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780190672454
eISBN:
9780190672485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190672454.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter introduces the basic framework of the book. Agent judgment is fallible, and top-down controls may preclude useful actions by agents. International development organizations (IDOs), then, ... More


Business as usual leads to underperformance in coastal restoration

Brian R. Silliman, Brent B. Hughes, Y. Stacy Zhang, and Qiang He

in Effective Conservation Science: Data Not Dogma

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198808978
eISBN:
9780191846687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808978.003.0027
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

This chapter shows that coastal wetland projects are underperforming because of confirmation bias. Despite two decades of work showing that top-down control can be essential to marsh restoration, the ... More


Predation and protists

David L. Kirchman

in Processes in Microbial Ecology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199586936
eISBN:
9780191774645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586936.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter focuses on the role of protozoa (purely heterotrophic protists) and other protists in grazing on other microbes. Heterotrophic nanoflagellates, 3–5 microns long, are the most important ... More


Predation and protists

David L. Kirchman

in Processes in Microbial Ecology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198789406
eISBN:
9780191831256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789406.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

Protists are involved in many ecological roles in natural environments, including primary production, herbivory and carnivory, and parasitism. Microbial ecologists have been interested in these ... More


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