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Allee Effects in Ecology and Conservation

Franck Courchamp, Ludek Berec, and Joanna Gascoigne

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198570301
eISBN:
9780191717642
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570301.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Allee effects are broadly defined as a decline in individual fitness at low population size or density, that can result in critical population thresholds below which populations crash to extinction. ... More


Conclusion

David S. Wendler

in The Ethics of Pediatric Research

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199730087
eISBN:
9780199776689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730087.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 10 provides the conclusion for the text, arguing that the present justification satisfies the 3 conditions on an acceptable justification for nonbeneficial pediatric research. Specifically, ... More


Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990

Arend Lijphart

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198273479
eISBN:
9780191684050
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273479.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

An electoral system is the most fundamental element of representative democracy, translating citizen's votes into representatives' seats. It is also the most potent practical instrument available to ... More


Constructing Threshold Functions

EYAL ZAMIR and BARAK MEDINA

in Law, Economics, and Morality

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195372168
eISBN:
9780199776078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372168.003.04
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter discusses various substantive and methodological choices involved in formalizing deontological constraints and options. It proposes to determine the permissibility of any act or rule ... More


Katherine Mansfield and Virginia Woolf: A Public of Two

Angela Smith

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198183983
eISBN:
9780191674167
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198183983.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, 20th-century Literature and Modernism

Long after the death of Katherine Mansfield (1888–1923), Virginia Woolf (1882–1941) described being haunted by her in dreams. Through detailed comparative readings of their fiction, letters, and ... More


Introduction to Electoral Systems

Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter establishes the importance of the electoral system as the central political institution in representative democracy. It discusses the dimensions of electoral systems, such as district ... More


Germany: Stability and Strategy in a Mixed‐Member Proportional System

Thomas Saalfeld

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

If mixed-member systems are ‘in vogue’, then the choice of many electoral reformers in Germany is the archetype for this system. Electors have two votes, one for a candidate in a single member ... More


Russia: The Authoritarian Adaptation of an Electoral System

Steven White

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0015
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Russia’s mixed parallel system was adopted after the collapse of communism, following a series of negotiations and disagreements between parliament and president. The high thresholds applied in the ... More


Austria: A Complex Electoral System with Subtle Effects

Wolfgang C. Müller

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0019
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Austria has a complex list PR system in which seats are distributed at three levels: regional, land, and national. At the regional and land levels, electors can either vote for a party in general or ... More


Poverty

Fred Campano and Dominick Salvatore

in Income Distribution: Includes CD

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195300918
eISBN:
9780199783441
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195300912.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter addresses some of the normative issues related to poverty. Both absolute and relative poverty are discussed as well as the more common poverty measures. The connection between the income ... More


Metaphors and Systemic Change

Tim O’Riordan, Tim Lenton, and Ian Christie

in Addressing Tipping Points for a Precarious Future

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265536
eISBN:
9780191760327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265536.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

Tipping points are metaphors of sudden change, of fear, of falling, of foreboding, and of failure. Tipping points are thresholds of tolerance, of bifurcation, and of transformation which are built ... More


Conclusions

Victor M. Ustinov, Alexey E. Zhukov, Anton Yu. Egorov, and Nikolai A. Maleev

in Quantum Dot Lasers

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526797
eISBN:
9780191712081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526797.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter presents some concluding remarks. Remarkable progress in the development of self-organized quantum dot lasers is pointed out and the most notable results, e.g. a record-low threshold ... More


The Fight Against Terrorism

EYAL ZAMIR and BARAK MEDINA

in Law, Economics, and Morality

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195372168
eISBN:
9780199776078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372168.003.06
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter presents a constrained cost-benefit analysis of measures taken in the fight against terrorism. It begins by characterizing and criticizing existing normative economic analysis of the ... More


Percolation and epidemics

Sergey N. Dorogovtsev

in Lectures on Complex Networks

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199548927
eISBN:
9780191720574
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548927.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter considers the organization of connected components in uncorrelated networks, in particular, the structure and size of a giant connected component. These properties are closely related to ... More


The Tools of Thinking

Michael Quinlan

in Thinking About Nuclear Weapons: Principles, Problems, Prospects

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199563944
eISBN:
9780191721274
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563944.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter notes that, beyond 1945, we have no direct evidence at all about the operational use of nuclear weapons and how conflict involving them might develop. This means that we have to rely on ... More


MINIMUM DEGREE: LAWS OF LARGE NUMBERS

Mathew Penrose

in Random Geometric Graphs

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198506263
eISBN:
9780191707858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506263.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter is concerned with the minimum degree of the random geometric graph G(n,r), or equivalently with the threshold value of r at which the minimum degree achieves value k. Laws of large ... More


CONNECTIVITY AND THE NUMBER OF COMPONENTS

Mathew Penrose

in Random Geometric Graphs

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198506263
eISBN:
9780191707858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506263.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter is mainly concerned with the connectivity threshold T on n random points (i.e., the smallest r at which G(n,r) is connected). The results for this threshold are similar to those for the ... More


Speech perception by people with cochlear damage

Brian C. J. Moore

in Perceptual Consequences of Cochlear Damage

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523307
eISBN:
9780191712456
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523307.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter describes the effect of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception, especially for speech in background sounds. The relationship of speech perception to other auditory abilities is ... More


Evolutionary genetics and the emergence of SARS Coronavirus

Edward C. Holmes and Andrew Rambaut

in SARS: A case study in emerging infections

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568193
eISBN:
9780191718175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568193.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

RNA viruses experience rates of mutation that are some six orders of magnitude higher than those seen in eukaryotes, which undoubtedly gives them great adaptability. Paradoxically, these mutation ... More


Matching just-noticeable differences

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Different stimulus continua have different Weber fractions. If Weber's Law holds, matching jnds across continua generates a power law relation. If numbers be regarded as an artificial continuum, ... More


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