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The Problem of Coordination

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199278220
eISBN:
9780191707926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278220.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The term ‘problem of coordination’ had appeared in Mach's writings on mechanics and thermodynamics; was salient in the discussion of the relation between mathematical and physical geometry that ... More


Temperature Measurement and Control

Jack W. Ekin

in Experimental Techniques for Low-Temperature Measurements: Cryostat Design, Material Properties and Superconductor Critical-Current Testing

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570547
eISBN:
9780191717710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570547.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter focuses on cryogenic thermometers. Section 5.1 gives an overview of thermometers and singles out several that will serve well in most measurement situations. It then looks at the ... More


What information do we have about how voters perceive party leaders?

Amanda Bittner

in Platform or Personality?: The Role of Party Leaders in Elections

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199595365
eISBN:
9780191725593
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595365.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter canvasses the information that has been collected about voters' perceptions of party leaders across over 100 election studies from nineteen countries. The chapter outlines the survey ... More


Idealization

Jr. Henry E. Kyburg

in Science & Reason

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195062533
eISBN:
9780199853038
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195062533.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In order for an “ideal” to make relevance, it is not mandatory, certainly, to be able to reach it. It is enough that it is possible to approach it, and even only to a certain extent. To be able to ... More


Temperature and the Boltzmann factor

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter explores the concept of temperature and shows how it can be defined in a statistical manner. This leads to the idea of a Boltzmann distribution and a Boltzmann factor. These ideas are ... More


Spirit, Air, and Quicksilver: Narrative: The Search for the “Real” Scale of Temperature

Hasok Chang

in Inventing Temperature: Measurement and Scientific Progress

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195171273
eISBN:
9780199835003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195171276.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The establishment of the fixed points of thermometry allowed the creation of numerical thermometers by finding a procedure for assigning numbers to the degrees of heat between fixed point and beyond ... More


To Go Beyond: Narrative: Measuring Temperature When Thermometers Melt and Freeze

Hasok Chang

in Inventing Temperature: Measurement and Scientific Progress

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195171273
eISBN:
9780199835003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195171276.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses how the challenge of extending the numerical scale beyond the temperature range in which it was established was addressed. It focuses on the investigations into the freezing ... More


. A New Alchemy

Michael Brian Schiffer

in Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology in the Age of Enlightenment

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520238022
eISBN:
9780520939851
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520238022.003.0010
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

This chapter investigates the significant role of electrical technology in chemistry. It specifically addresses that new alchemists incorporated electrical technology into chemical experiments. The ... More


The Plague

William C. Summers

in The Great Manchurian Plague of 1910-1911: The Geopolitics of an Epidemic Disease

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300183191
eISBN:
9780300184761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300183191.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter examines how plague affected the three major cities, each with a different culture and background, as well as the intervening hinterlands. At the beginning of the epidemic, the Russian ... More


A Warming World

John Firor

in The Crowded Greenhouse: Population, Climate Change, and Creating a Sustainable World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300093209
eISBN:
9780300133448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300093209.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter focuses on the science of climate change and recapitulates the development of the science in the past 100 years. Earth's average climate has warmed strikingly since 1860. Climate experts ... More


Who votes for the running mate, anyway?

Christopher J. Devine and Kyle C. Kopko

in The VP Advantage: How running mates influence home state voting in presidential elections

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781784993375
eISBN:
9781526109934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9781784993375.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter assesses the electoral influence of vice presidential candidates using a nationally representative dataset - the American National Election Studies (ANES) survey. The results indicate ... More


The Snayubik Man: Reticulate Physiospiritualism and the Thermometer

Projit Bihari Mukharji

in Doctoring Traditions: Ayurveda, Small Technologies, and Braided Sciences

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226381794
eISBN:
9780226381824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226381824.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The clinical thermometer is the small technology around which this chapter is organized. After briefly perusing the history of the clinical thermometer it proceeds to examine how fever itself came to ... More


Physical Variables in Freshwater Ecosystems

Curt Lamberth and Jocelyne M.R. Hughes

in Freshwater Ecology and Conservation: Approaches and Techniques

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2019
ISBN:
9780198766384
eISBN:
9780191820908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198766384.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

We consider three categories of physical variables that can be measured for different freshwater ecosystems: (1) variables measured or described at the catchment or sub-catchment scale (e.g., ... More


Stable Isotopes

Matthieu Roy-Barman and Catherine Jeandel

in Marine Geochemistry: Ocean Circulation, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198787495
eISBN:
9780191829604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198787495.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

Stable isotopes provide traceability throughout the ocean. The isotopes of a given chemical element have the same electronic structure and the same chemical behavior but slightly different weights. ... More


Continuous Dimensions and Distributional Learning

Vsevolod Kapatsinski

in Changing Minds Changing Tools: From Learning Theory to Language Acquisition to Language Change

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780262037860
eISBN:
9780262346313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262037860.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes the evidence for the existence of dimensions, focusing on the difference between the difficulty of attention shifts to a previously relevant vs. irrelevant dimension. It ... More


Evaluations of Parties and Party Leaders

Gary C. Jacobson

in Presidents and Parties in the Public Mind

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780226589206
eISBN:
9780226589480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226589480.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter examines how, during the four most recently completed administrations (G.H.W. Bush through Barack Obama), popular assessments of each president’s performance affected the incidence of ... More


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