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Properties of Solids at Low Temperatures

Jack W. Ekin

in Experimental Techniques for Low-Temperature Measurements: Cryostat Design, Material Properties and Superconductor Critical-Current Testing

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570547
eISBN:
9780191717710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570547.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the physics of the properties of material used in cryostat construction and presents tables of data for cryostat design. The order of presentation of the first four properties ... More


Pendulum rod materials

Robert James Matthys

in Accurate Clock Pendulums

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529712
eISBN:
9780191712791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529712.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Over time, several different materials have been used for the pendulum rod such as steel, wood, and invar. The best material is quartz because of its proven stability and low thermal expansion. Steel ... More


PHONON-PHONON INTERACTION

J. M. Ziman

in Electrons and Phonons: The Theory of Transport Phenomena in Solids

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198507796
eISBN:
9780191709937
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507796.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter begins with a discussion of the general theory of transition possibilities. It then discusses anharmonic lattice forces, effects of selection rules, interaction with optical modes, ... More


Some practical properties of quartz

Robert James Matthys

in Accurate Clock Pendulums

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529712
eISBN:
9780191712791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529712.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The big attraction of quartz as a pendulum material is its good dimensional stability over time. Stability over time is the biggest and most needed characteristic in an accurate pendulum. In contrast ... More


Physical properties of bonds

I. David Brown

in The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry: The Bond Valence Model

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199298815
eISBN:
9780191708879
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298815.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Many bond properties are related to bond valence. In some cases, specifically tetrahedral coordination, bond angles are correlated with bond lengths, hence with bond valences. Thermal vibrations of ... More


CRYSTAL LATTICES. APPLICATIONS

R. E. Peierls

in Quantum Theory of Solids

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198507819
eISBN:
9780191709913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507819.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses applications of crystal lattices. Topics covered include specific heat, thermal expansion, linear term in specific heat, thermal conductivity, the Boltzmann equation, high ... More


James’ suspension spring equations

Robert James Matthys

in Accurate Clock Pendulums

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529712
eISBN:
9780191712791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529712.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

In 1983, K. James published two useful but rather complicated equations whose purpose was to help design the suspension spring. The equations show the effect that different spring lengths, widths, ... More


Elastic, thermal, and lattice dynamical properties

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter focuses on those effects that depend on small displacements of atoms from their equilibrium sites. It starts with the theory of anisotropic elasticity as applied to a crystalline ... More


The heat treatment of invar

Robert James Matthys

in Accurate Clock Pendulums

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529712
eISBN:
9780191712791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529712.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Even though invar is the most common material used for the pendulum rod in a good clock, it is still a poor material for the purpose because of its relatively poor dimensional stability over time ... More


The instability of invar

Robert James Matthys

in Accurate Clock Pendulums

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529712
eISBN:
9780191712791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529712.003.0023
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Almost since its invention in 1896, invar has been known to be a dimensionally unstable pendulum rod material. A few articles have been published over the years, trying to address the dimensional ... More


Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics: Concurrent Multiscale Simulation at Finite Temperature Protect 1

Robert E. Rudd

in Multiscale Methods: Bridging the Scales in Science and Engineering

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199233854
eISBN:
9780191715532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233854.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) is a computer modeling technique that couples conventional molecular dynamics (MD) in some spatial regions of the simulation to a more coarse-grained ... More


Structure-property and structure–activity relationships

ANGELO GAVEZZOTTI

in Molecular Aggregation: Structure analysis and molecular simulation of crystals and liquids

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570806
eISBN:
9780191718779
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570806.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The study of the structure and transformations of organic condensed phases is at the forefront of modern chemistry. One reason for this is that these structures and transformations are poorly ... More


Experimental methods for estimating the relative intensities of overlapping reflections

Thomas Wessels, Christian Baerlocher, Lynne B. McCusker, and William I. F. David

in Structure Determination from Powder Diffraction Data

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199205530
eISBN:
9780191718076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205530.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The better the estimate of the individual reflection intensities from a powder diffraction pattern, the better are the chances of solving the associated crystal structure. This chapter examines two ... More


Mechanical and physical properties of graphene

E. L. Wolf

in Graphene: A New Paradigm in Condensed Matter and Device Physics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199645862
eISBN:
9780191767852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645862.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Graphene sheets behave as classical elastic plates regarding their oscillations and their responses to mounting strains in the formation of ripples or corrugations. Small local random corrugations of ... More


Physical Properties of Bonds

I. David Brown

in The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198742951
eISBN:
9780191802935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742951.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In addition to their lengths and angles (Section 8.4), bonds are associated with other measurable properties such as atomic radius (Section 8.3), force constants (Section 8.5), thermal expansion ... More


Thermal Expansion, Phonon–Phonon Interactions, and Heat Transport

J. B. Ketterson

in The Physics of Solids

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198742906
eISBN:
9780191821523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742906.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The discussion of Chapter 16, although presenting a general strategy for treating lattice dynamics, was limited in its application to the harmonic approximation. This chapter treats a number of ... More


Thermodynamics and general properties

A.V. Narlikar

in Superconductors

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199584116
eISBN:
9780191747496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199584116.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the essential thermodynamic aspects of superconductors (with details left to an appendix for the interested reader). Four prominent thermal properties described are heat ... More


Deeper Waters

Andrew T. Guzman

in Overheated: The Human Cost of Climate Change

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
February 2015
ISBN:
9780199933877
eISBN:
9780190252694
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199933877.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter discusses the potentially devastating effects of rising sea levels caused by climate change. For instance, island nations such as the Maldives, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Tokelau, Tonga, Fiji, ... More


Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: Scientific Realities and Legal Responses

Randall S. Abate and Sarah Ellen Krejci

in Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: U.S. and International Perspectives

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199368747
eISBN:
9780199368761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199368747.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law, Public International Law

This chapter provides an overview of the challenges that Ocean and Coastal Law faces in responding to climate change impacts. First, it describes the geological history of climate change and explains ... More


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