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Transforming the 20th Century:: Debts and Advances

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Technical progress in the 20th century was based on the unprecedented technical advances that took place during the two pre-WWI generations (1867-1914). All of these fundamental and lasting ... More


New Realities and Counterintuitive Worlds:: Accomplishments and Concerns

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Technical advances based on unprecedented levels of energy use brought a new phenomenon of mass consumption as well as many obvious gains in the typical quality of life. However, they have not ... More


A New Era or an Ephemeral Phenomenon?: Outlook for Technical Civilization

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

While the accomplishments of (and the existing problems with) 20th century ingenuity are clear, their implications for the future are highly contested as techno-optimists clash with critics of ... More


The Great Inheritance

Vaclav Smil

in Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867-1914 and Their Lasting Impact

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195168747
eISBN:
9780199835522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168747.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

No other period in history has brought so many fundamental technical advances in such a short period of time. This Age of Synergy (1867-1914) saw a rapid introduction of science-based innovations, ... More


Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867-1914 and Their Lasting Impact

Vaclav Smil

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195168747
eISBN:
9780199835522
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168747.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This book is a systematic interdisciplinary account of the history of unprecedented technical advances that took place in Europe and North America during the three pre-WWI generations and of their ... More


Customs and Excise: Trade, Production, and Consumption in England 1640-1845

William J. Ashworth

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199259212
eISBN:
9780191717918
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199259212.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, Economic History

This book traces the growth of customs and excise, and their integral role in shaping the framework of industrial England; including state power, technical advance, and the evolution of a consumer ... More


The Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate: Theory and Evidence for Latin America

Michael Connolly and John Devereux

in Fundamental Determinants of Exchange Rates

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293064
eISBN:
9780191596940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293062.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, International

Our empirical results suggest that movements in the equilibrium real exchange rate NATREX for Latin American economies over the period 1960–85 can be explained in terms of growth, openness, and ... More


Flagships of Imperialism: The P&O Company and the Politics of Empire From Its Origins to 1867

Freda Harcourt and Sarah Palmer

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719073939
eISBN:
9781781700761
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719073939.001.0001
Subject:
History, Imperialism and Colonialism

This book is a study on the history of the P&O shipping company, paying due attention to the context of nineteenth-century imperial politics that so significantly shaped the company's development. ... More


Left Behind: Case Studies of Decline and Recapitulation in the Ringtone as Representation

Sumanth Gopinath

in The Ringtone Dialectic: Economy and Cultural Form

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780262019156
eISBN:
9780262315081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019156.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

What happens when to an older technological form that is supplanted when a newer one is incorporated into everyday social life in its place? This chapter addresses that question, and in the case of ... More


Heightened Standards of Patentability: Raising the Bar on Inventions

Feroz Ali

in The Access Regime: Patent Law Reforms for Affordable Medicines

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199463480
eISBN:
9780199086344
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199463480.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Patents are not granted uniformly across nations as the standards for patentability varies across nations. This chapter analyses standards of patentability, specifically nonobviousness and the ... More


Shakespeare and the ‘Military Revolution’: The Cultural and Social Weapons of Reformed War

Paola Pugliatti

in Shakespeare and the Politics of Commoners: Digesting the New Social History

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780198806899
eISBN:
9780191846557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198806899.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare Studies

This chapter recounts how developments in the technology of battle had by Shakespeare’s time caught up with even the relatively resistant, cavalry-oriented English nobility. Outlining these technical ... More


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