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Simple Heuristics that Help Us Win

Will M. Bennis and Thorsten Pachur

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0032
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter summarizes the fast-and-frugal-heuristics (FFH) approach to judgment and decision making, particularly as it applies to sports. The aim is to provide a framework through which current ... More


How Heuristics Handle Uncertainty

Henry Brighton and Gerd Gigerenzer

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Traditionally, it is assumed that a trade-off exists between effort and accuracy: The more effort we put in, the more accurate our inferences. This chapter shows how this trade-off does not hold in ... More


Redundancy: Environment Structure That Simple Heuristics Can Exploit

Jörg Rieskamp and Anja Dieckmann

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0056
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter argues that information redundancy in environments has a major impact on the accuracy and frugality of inference heuristics. In a simulation study, under high information redundancy ... More


The Quest for Take-the-Best: Insights and Outlooks From Experimental Research

Arndt Bröder

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0067
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter describes the course of development of experimental studies on the adaptive toolbox conducted in the author’s laboratory. In a dialectical process, experimental results informed the ... More


Simple Rules for Ordering Cues in One-Reason Decision Making

Anja Dieckmann and Peter M. Todd

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0078
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Much of the success of simple lexicographic heuristics such as take-the-best comes from using an appropriate cue order, such as validity order. Validity ordering requires considerable computation, ... More


The “Less-Is-More” Effect in Group Decision Making

Shenghua Luan, Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos, and Torsten Reimer

in Simple Heuristics in a Social World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195388435
eISBN:
9780199950089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388435.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

If each member of a group makes less accurate decisions than those of another group, can the former actually make more accurate decisions collectively than the latter? Through four simulation ... More


Simple Heuristics and Information Sharing in Groups

Torsten Reimer and Ulrich Hoffrage

in Simple Heuristics in a Social World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195388435
eISBN:
9780199950089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388435.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In today's world of business and politics, collaboration is a common and valued practice. A group's potential to outperform individual decision makers is especially apparent if the knowledge of the ... More


Social Learning: A Route to Good Cue Orders

Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Masanori Takezawa, Jan K. Woike, and Gerd Gigerenzer

in Simple Heuristics in a Social World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195388435
eISBN:
9780199950089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388435.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Inferences are often based on uncertain cues, and the accuracy of such inferences depends on the order in which the cues are searched. Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that ... More


Fast, Frugal, and Fit: Simple Heuristics for Paired Comparison

Laura Martignon and Ulrich Hoffrage

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter provides an overview of recent results on lexicographic, linear, and Bayesian models for paired comparison from a cognitive psychology perspective. Within each class, we distinguish ... More


Empirical Tests of a Fast-and-Frugal Heuristic: Not Everyone “Takes-the-Best”

Ben R. Newell, Nicola J. Weston, and David R. Shanks

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

The fast-and-frugal heuristics approach to decision making under uncertainty advocated by Gigerenzer and colleagues (e.g., Gigerenzer & Goldstein, 1996) has achieved great popularity despite a ... More


A Response-Time Approach to Comparing Generalized Rational and Take-the-Best Models of Decision Making

F. Bryan Bergert and Robert M. Nosofsky

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter develops and tests generalized versions of take-the-best (TTB) and rational (RAT) models of multiattribute paired-comparison inference. The generalized models make allowances for ... More


Sequential Processing of Cues in Memory-Based Multiattribute Decisions

Arndt Bröder and Wolfgang Gaissmaier

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

When probabilistic inferences have to be made from cue values stored in long-term memory, many participants appear to use fast-and-frugal heuristics, such as “take-the-best” (TTB), that assume ... More


Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality

Gerd Gigerenzer and Daniel G. Goldstein

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Humans and animals make inferences about the world under limited time and knowledge. In contrast, many models of rational inference treat the mind as a Laplacean Demon, equipped with unlimited time, ... More


Simple Heuristics and Rules of Thumb: Where Psychologists and Behavioural Biologists Might Meet

John M.C. Hutchinson and Gerd Gigerenzer

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

The Centre for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition (ABC) has hypothesized that much human decision making can be described by simple algorithmic process models (heuristics). This chapter explains this ... More


Naive and yet Enlightened: From Natural Frequencies to Fast and Frugal Decision Trees

Laura Martignon, Oliver Vitouch, Masanori Takezawa, and Malcolm R. Forster

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

The trees for classification and for decision that are introduced in this chapter are naïve, fast, and frugal. Why they are “naïve,” that is, why they ignore conditional dependencies between cues, is ... More


Heuristic Decision Making

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Simply Rational: Decision Making in the Real World

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199390076
eISBN:
9780190240684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199390076.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The chapter provides an extensive review of research that tests formal models of heuristic inference, including in business organizations, health care systems, and legal institutions. This research ... More


The Recognition Heuristic: A Decade of Research

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Simply Rational: Decision Making in the Real World

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199390076
eISBN:
9780190240684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199390076.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The recognition heuristic exploits the basic psychological capacity for recognition to make inferences about unknown quantities in the world. This chapter reviews and clarifies issues that emerged ... More


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