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Topological Classification Of Defects

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The effective metric and effective gauge fields are simulated in superfluids by the inhomogeneity of the superfluid vacuum. In superfluids, many inhomogeneous configurations of the vacuum are stable ... More


Basic properties

E. R. DOBBS

in Helium Three

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198506409
eISBN:
9780191709463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506409.003.0020
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents a summary of the main properties of superfluid 3He. Topics covered include thermal properties, magnetic properties, superfluidity, acoustical properties, and rotating superfluid.


INTERACTION OF IONS WITH VORTEX LINES

A.F. Borghesani

in Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

If the superfluid is contained in a rotating bucket, it resembles a solid-body rotation by developing an uniform array of quantized vortex lines. These can capture ions and, thus, rotating superfluid ... More


BEC: Its definition, origin, occurrence, and consequences

A.J. Leggett

in Quantum Liquids: Bose condensation and Cooper pairing in condensed-matter systems

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198526438
eISBN:
9780191711954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526438.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter contains a general discussion of the phenomenon of BEC, under conditions much broader than those realized in the equilibrium noninteracting system introduced in Chapter 1. A definition ... More


Liquid 4He

A.J. Leggett

in Quantum Liquids: Bose condensation and Cooper pairing in condensed-matter systems

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198526438
eISBN:
9780191711954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526438.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter is devoted to a specific system displaying BEC, namely the He-II phase of liquid He-4. First, it reviews the anomalous flow and other properties of He-II, which generically go under the ... More


Quantum Hall states of ultracold atomic gases

Nigel R. Cooper

in Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 94, July 2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199661886
eISBN:
9780191748356
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661886.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter reviews the theoretical understanding of Bose and Fermi superfluids under rotation (or in an effective magnetic field) while placing this in context of the current experimental status. ... More


Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena

Jean Zinn-Justin

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198509233
eISBN:
9780191708732
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509233.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The book is an introduction to quantum field theory and renormalization group. It shows that these frameworks are essential for the understanding of phenomena belonging to many different areas of ... More


Helium Three

Roland Dobbs

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198506409
eISBN:
9780191709463
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506409.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The condensed phases of helium three provide an exciting laboratory for many fundamental questions in condensed matter physics. Due to its light mass and weak interatomic potential, the condensed ... More


The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Grigory E. Volovik

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

There are fundamental relations between three vast areas of physics: particle physics, cosmology, and condensed matter physics. The fundamental links between the first two areas — in other words, ... More


Three Levels of Phenomenology of Superfluid 3He

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

There are three levels of phenomenology of 3He-A: the Ginzburg–Landau level in the vicinity of transition temperature, the London level which studies statics and dynamics of the soft variables ... More


Vortices In 3He-B

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses the topology of singular topological defects — defects with singular core of coherence length size — in 3He-B and in quantum chromodynamics, such as conventional mass vortices, ... More


Continuous Structures

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

When several distinct energy scales are involved, the vacuum symmetry is different for different length scales: the larger the length scale, the more the symmetry is reduced. The interplay of ... More


Anomalous Currents

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Parity violation, the asymmetry between left and right, is one of the fundamental properties of the quantum vacuum of the Standard Model. This effect is strong at high energy on the order of the ... More


Vortex Mass

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0024
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The mass (inertia) of an object is determined as the response of the momentum of the object to its velocity. This chapter discusses the inertia of an object moving in the quantum vacuum of the ... More


Vortex Formation By Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0027
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses nucleation of vortices due to instability of the interface between two superfluids moving with different velocities. The classical counterpart of this instability is the ... More


Vortex Formation in Ionizing Radiation

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0028
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses the vortex formation during a rapid phase transition from the normal to superfluid state. The formation of topological defects in non-equilibrium phase transitions is a very ... More


Vacuum Under Rotation and Spinning Strings

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0031
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter deals with the properties of the quantum vacuum in superfluids in the presence of the analog of a gravimagnetic field. Such an effective field arises either in the presence of ... More


Analogs Of Event Horizon

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0032
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

A black hole is the region from which the observer who is outside the hole cannot obtain any information. The event horizon represents the boundary of the black hole region. Analogs of the black hole ... More


Conclusion

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0033
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

According to the modern view, elementary particles (electrons, neutrinos, quarks, etc.) are excitations of some more fundamental medium called the quantum vacuum. This is the new aether of the 21st ... More


Effective Theory Of Superfluidity

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses how the effective theory incorporates the low-energy dynamics of the superfluid vacuum and the dynamics of the system of quasiparticles in Bose liquids. The effective theory of ... More


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