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Defects on cylinders: superfluid helium films and bacterial cell walls

David R. Nelson and Ariel Amir

in Soft Interfaces: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 98, July 2012

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198789352
eISBN:
9780191831201
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789352.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

There is a deep analogy between the physics of crystalline solids and the behaviour of superfluids, dating back to the pioneering work of Phillip Anderson, Paul Martin, and others. The stiffness to ... More


An introduction to superfluidity and superconductivity

K. H. Bennemann and J. B. Ketterson

in Novel Superfluids: Volume 1

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199585915
eISBN:
9780191747526
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585915.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter covers some of the basics of superfluidity. It discusses Bose–Einstein condensation in an ideal gas; the Bogoliubov transformation; superfluid helium II; microscopic interpretation of ... More


Vorticity, Vortex Dynamics and Rotating Flows

Etienne Guyon, Jean-Pierre Hulin, Luc Petit, and Catalin.D. Mitescu

in Physical Hydrodynamics, 2nd Edn

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198702443
eISBN:
9780191772153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702443.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Vorticity characterizes the local rotation within a fluid. It can be continuously distributed or nonzero only on singular lines: the study of such “vortex filaments” suggests an analogy with ... More


Superfluid 4He

Lev Pitaevskii and Sandro Stringari

in Bose-Einstein Condensation and Superfluidity

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198758884
eISBN:
9780191818721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198758884.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter summarizes some key features exhibited by superfluid 4He. These include the structure of the elementary excitations exhibiting the typical phonon–maxon–roton dispersion, the pair ... More


Topological Classification Of Defects

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The effective metric and effective gauge fields are simulated in superfluids by the inhomogeneity of the superfluid vacuum. In superfluids, many inhomogeneous configurations of the vacuum are stable ... More


Vortices In 3He-B

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses the topology of singular topological defects — defects with singular core of coherence length size — in 3He-B and in quantum chromodynamics, such as conventional mass vortices, ... More


Conclusion

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0033
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

According to the modern view, elementary particles (electrons, neutrinos, quarks, etc.) are excitations of some more fundamental medium called the quantum vacuum. This is the new aether of the 21st ... More


Three Levels of Phenomenology of Superfluid 3He

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

There are three levels of phenomenology of 3He-A: the Ginzburg–Landau level in the vicinity of transition temperature, the London level which studies statics and dynamics of the soft variables ... More


The Cantabrigian

Andrew Zangwill

in A Mind Over Matter: Philip Anderson and the Physics of the Very Many

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198869108
eISBN:
9780191905599
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198869108.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Anderson spends a sabbatical year at the University of Cambridge. He informs graduate student Brian Josephson about spontaneous symmetry breaking in superconductors and Josephson discovers the ... More


Non-Magnetic Systems and The (φ2)2 Field Theory

JEAN ZINN-JUSTIN

in Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198509233
eISBN:
9780191708732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509233.003.0028
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Many systems to which the RG predictions based on the φ4 field theory apply are non-magnetic. This chapter considers three systems or classes of systems which are of special interest because they ... More


Anomalous Currents

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Parity violation, the asymmetry between left and right, is one of the fundamental properties of the quantum vacuum of the Standard Model. This effect is strong at high energy on the order of the ... More


Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena

Jean Zinn-Justin

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198509233
eISBN:
9780191708732
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509233.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The book is an introduction to quantum field theory and renormalization group. It shows that these frameworks are essential for the understanding of phenomena belonging to many different areas of ... More


Bose-Einstein Condensation and Superfluidity

Lev Pitaevskii and Sandro Stringari

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198758884
eISBN:
9780191818721
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198758884.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This volume introduces the basic concepts of Bose–Einstein condensation and superfluidity. It makes special reference to the physics of ultracold atomic gases; an area in which enormous experimental ... More


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