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 Cost Savings from Allowance Trading in the 1990 Clean Air Act: Estimates from a Choice‐Based Model

Nathaniel O. Keohane

in Moving to Markets in Environmental Regulation: Lessons from Twenty Years of Experience

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195189650
eISBN:
9780199783694
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189650.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This essay offers a comprehensive assessment of the cost savings over the first five years of the allowance trading program. The current study has two methodological advantages over the previous ... More


Structural Chemistry of Group 16 Elements

Wai-Kee Li, Gong-Du Zhou, and Thomas Chung Wai Mak

in Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199216949
eISBN:
9780191711992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216949.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter focuses on the first two elements of the group: oxygen and sulfur. There is a section each on dioxygen and ozone, oxygen and dioxygen coordination compounds, and structure of water and ... More


Epigraphy and the Economy of the Roman Empire

Giovanni Salmeri

in Epigraphy and the Historical Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197265062
eISBN:
9780191754173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265062.003.0011
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

Rostovtzeff's study of the Roman Empire (1926) cites many inscriptions in the notes but rarely does their evidence figure in the argument of the main text. Since then, many have used inscriptions for ... More


Structure and bonding in oxides and oxoacids of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorine

Arne Haaland

in Molecules and Models: The molecular structures of main group element compounds

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199235353
eISBN:
9780191715594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235353.003.0020
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the molecular structures of the three known carbon oxides, the three known sulfur oxides, eight nitrogen oxides, two phosphorus oxides, and three chlorine oxides. Bond energies ... More


Public and Private: Newton’s Chrysopoeia and the Republic of Chymistry

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0020
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter shows that Newton developed a theory of refraction based on the chymical principle sulfur, which he described in the first edition Opticks (1704). It also finds that the seeds of this ... More


The Ghost of Sendivogius: Niter, Sulfur, Fermentation, and Affinity

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0021
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter builds on Newton's increasing interest in sulfur, placing his theories in the context of developments within the chymical community of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth ... More


Malang

John K. Stutterheim

in The Diary of Prisoner 17326: A Boy's Life in a Japanese Labor Camp

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780823231508
eISBN:
9780823250745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823231508.003.0003
Subject:
History, Social History

Chapter 3 opens with the author's family embarking on a trip to the Netherlands, where he chronicles a boat ride through Portugal, the Straight of Gibraltar, and several other places. The author also ... More


Earth, Air, Fire, and Water

Nicholas Mee

in Celestial Tapestry: The Warp and Weft of Art and Mathematics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198851950
eISBN:
9780191886690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851950.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The idea that matter is composed of four fundamental elements—Earth, Air, Fire, and Water—dates back to the Greek philosopher Empedocles. This idea was enormously influential. It was adapted to ... More


Resource Limitation

W. stanley Harpole, Leah Goldstein, and Rebecca J. Aicher

in California Grasslands: Ecology and Management

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252202
eISBN:
9780520933972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252202.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The productivity of California grasslands is limited by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, or water at various sites, and studies finding limitation by multiple resources are common. This ... More


Coal: A Primer

Richard Revesz and Jack Lienke

in Struggling for Air: Power Plants and the "War on Coal"

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190233112
eISBN:
9780197559536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190233112.003.0004
Subject:
Environmental Science, Pollution and Threats to the Environment

This book chronicles almost five decades of efforts by the United States government to reduce the air pollution associated with burning coal, along with the often misleading political rhetoric ... More


The Architect of Molecules

in Image and Reality: Kekule, Kopp, and the Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226723327
eISBN:
9780226723358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226723358.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Around the middle of the nineteenth century, a number of important figures in the world of chemistry were in London to experiment with molecules. They included Reinhold Hofmann, Hermann Kolbe, Edward ... More


Ducktown Smoke: The Fight over One of the South's Greatest Environmental Disasters

Duncan Maysilles

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834596
eISBN:
9781469603155
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877937_maysilles
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

It is hard to make a desert in a place that receives sixty inches of rain each year. After decades of copper mining, however, all that remained of the old hardwood forests in the Ducktown Mining ... More


The Essence of Life

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter briefly explores the potential mechanisms underlying a transition from inanimate matter to life. First of all, the structure of a minimal cell is discussed, according to chemoton theory ... More


>The View From the Mountain

Duncan Maysilles

in Ducktown Smoke: The Fight over One of the South's Greatest Environmental Disasters

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834596
eISBN:
9781469603155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877937_maysilles.4
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This book begins with the blue smoke that came from the copper smelters ten miles away from Mr. Trammel's apple orchard, across the Tennessee border on the top of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Fannin ... More


Will Shippen, Forestry, and Georgia's Second Smoke Suit, 1905–1907

Duncan Maysilles

in Ducktown Smoke: The Fight over One of the South's Greatest Environmental Disasters

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834596
eISBN:
9781469603155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877937_maysilles.11
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter discusses how Attorney General John C. Hart negotiated the 1904 settlement agreement with the Tennessee Copper Company (TCC) and the Ducktown Sulphur, Copper & Iron Company (DSC I) in ... More


Clearer Skies Over China: Reconciling Air Quality, Climate, and Economic Goals

Chris P. Nielsen and Mun S. Ho (eds)

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780262019880
eISBN:
9780262315418
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019880.001.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

China's carbon dioxide emissions now outstrip those of other countries and its domestic air quality is severely degraded, especially in urban areas. Its sheer size and its growing, ... More


Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Marine Source of Atmospherically Active Trace Gases

Frances Hopkins and Philip Nightingale

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0016
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

A wide range of trace gases, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and organohalogens, are formed in the surface oceans via biological and/or photochemical processes. Consequently, these gases become ... More


The Birth of the First Cancer Drugs

Brent R. Stockwell

in The Quest for the Cure: The Science and Stories Behind the Next Generation of Medicines

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231152136
eISBN:
9780231525527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231152136.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter traces the origins of today’s cancer drugs. It begins with the discovery of sulfur mustard in 1886 by the German chemist Viktor Meyer, who synthesized in pure form ... More


The rational workshop

Miko Flohr

in The World of the Fullo: Work, Economy, and Society in Roman Italy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659357
eISBN:
9780191750618
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659357.003.0003
Subject:
Classical Studies, Archaeology: Classical

This chapter focuses on the decisions taken by owners and managers about the layout of the workshop and the spatial organization of the production process. This necessitates,first, a thorough ... More


The Gusuku Period

Mamoru Akamine

Robert Huey (ed.)

in The Ryukyu Kingdom: Cornerstone of East Asia

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780824855178
eISBN:
9780824872953
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824855178.003.0002
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter looks at the Gusuku period (roughly the fifteenth century), when Ryukyu was divided into two cultural spheres – northern and southern. This period saw the rise of local fiefs, and ... More


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