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The Epistemic Status of Belief in God

Stephen T. Davis

in Christian Philosophical Theology

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199284597
eISBN:
9780191603778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199284598.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter presents a theistic proof called the Generic Cosmological Argument (GCA). In outline form, the GCA runs as follows: (1) if the universe can be explained, then God exists; (2) everything ... More


The Argument a Priori and Hume's “Curious Nostrum”

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Although most philosophers would agree with the suggestion that Hume's treatment of the problem of causation “is the center‐piece of the Treatise” (or, at least, of Book I), they also generally hold ... More


Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought

R. J. Hankinson

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246564
eISBN:
9780191597572
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246564.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

In this book, R. J. Hankinson traces the history of investigation into the nature of cause and explanation, from the beginnings of Ancient Greek philosophy in 600 bc, through the Graeco‐Roman world, ... More


The Price of an Ultimate Theory

Nicholas Rescher

in Nature and Understanding: The Metaphysics and Method of Science

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199261826
eISBN:
9780191698781
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199261826.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the need for an ultimate theory that will improve understanding of nature. According to the Principle of Sufficient Reason, every fact about the world is explicable on the ... More


The Presocratics

R. J. Hankinson

in Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246564
eISBN:
9780191597572
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246564.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

In this chapter, Hankinson considers the contributions to the explanation of nature of each of the major Presocratic figures. Following a brief sketch of the cosmogonies of Homer and Hesiod, ... More


The Existence of Alpha

Norman Kretzmann

in The Metaphysics of Theism: Aquinas's Natural Theology in Summa contra gentiles I

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246533
eISBN:
9780191597886
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924653X.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Without a good argument as yet for the existence of God or anything else that might count as the universal first source of being and assuming that there is an answer to the question, why is there ... More


The Ends of Explanation

Bryan Magee

in The Philosophy of Schopenhauer

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198237228
eISBN:
9780191706233
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237227.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Investigates the contents of Schopenhauer's first book On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. This is devoted to the nature of explanation. It concludes that all events in the ... More


Meillassoux against the Principle of Reason: An Ontology of Factiality

Tyler Tritten

in The Contingency of Necessity: Reason and God as Matters of Fact

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781474428194
eISBN:
9781474438643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474428194.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

While Meillassoux has famously argued for the necessity of contingency, this chapter offers a critique of Meillassoux in order to pose the possibility of the contingency of necessity. An alternative ... More


Kant’s Critique of Spinoza

Omri Boehm

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199354801
eISBN:
9780199354825
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199354801.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, History of Philosophy

It is commonly assumed that Kant never seriously engaged with Spinoza or Spinozism—certainly not before the break of the Pantheismusstreit, certainly not within the Critique of Pure Reason. Offering ... More


The Principle of Least Action: From Teleology to Causality

Yemima Ben-Menahem

in Causation in Science

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780691174938
eISBN:
9781400889297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174938.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the place of the “least action” principle in the causal family and its role in in modern science's transition from teleology to causality. It first provides an overview of the ... More


Cosmological Arguments

Herman Philipse

in God in the Age of Science?: A Critique of Religious Reason

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199697533
eISBN:
9780191738470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697533.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Inductive cosmological arguments are prima facie more promising for the natural theologian than deductive arguments, such as the Kalam cosmological argument, which is not sound. In the cosmological ... More


Cosmological and Design Arguments

Alexander R. Pruss and Richard M. Gale

in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195138092
eISBN:
9780199835348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138090.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

The cosmological and teleological argument both start with some contingent feature of the actual world and argue that the best or only explanation of that feature is that it was produced by an ... More


The Externality of Explanations and The Problem of an Infinite Regress

Christopher Yeomans

in Freedom and Reflection: Hegel and the Logic of Agency

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794522
eISBN:
9780199919253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794522.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter presents a form of doubt or scepticism about free will that derives from basic commitments to the form of explanation that the principle of sufficient reason requires us to hold as valid ... More


Time and Explanation

Bede Rundle

in Why there is Something rather than Nothing

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199270507
eISBN:
9780191601392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270503.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The question whether the universe has existed for an infinite or only a finite time, along with the question whether a causal series might go back infinitely far into the past, has loomed large in ... More


Primary Truths

Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra

in Leibniz’s Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780198712664
eISBN:
9780191781018
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712664.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter is a discussion of Leibniz’s argument for the Identity of Indiscernibles in Primary Truths, where Leibniz derives the Identity of Indiscernibles from the Principle of Sufficient Reason. ... More


The Mechanistic Challenge and the Problem of Passivity

Christopher Yeomans

in Freedom and Reflection: Hegel and the Logic of Agency

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794522
eISBN:
9780199919253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794522.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter explores particular causal scepticism about free will, which holds that the effect in a causal relation is essentially passive, and thus that the embedding of the agent in the causal ... More


The One Possible Basis, the Ideal of Pure Reason and Kant’s Regulative Spinozism

Omri Boehm

in Kant’s Critique of Spinoza

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199354801
eISBN:
9780199354825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199354801.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Kant’s pre-critical demonstration of God’s existence, elaborated in the “One Possible Basis,” is analyzed. It is argued that the argument Kant provides, drawing on the application of the Principle of ... More


Baumgarten’s Rationalism

Brandon C. Look

in Baumgarten and Kant on Metaphysics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198783886
eISBN:
9780191826535
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198783886.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter reconsiders the character of Baumgarten’s supposed place in the rationalist tradition by pointing out that the strict opposition usually thought to hold between rationalism, empiricism, ... More


Reason in the Metaphysics of Finite Individuals

Michael LeBuffe

in Spinoza on Reason

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780190845803
eISBN:
9780190845834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190845803.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Spinoza’s claim in Ethics 1 that there is a reason for whatever exists suggests to Michael Della Rocca that Spinoza is a kind of idealist: he makes everything available to reason. Other features of ... More


The Causa Sui and the Ontological Argument, or the Principle of Sufficient Reason and the Is-Ought Distinction

Omri Boehm

in Kant’s Critique of Spinoza

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199354801
eISBN:
9780199354825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199354801.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Spinoza’s causa sui poses a challenge to Kant’s attack on rational cosmology, and thereby to his attack on metaphysical rationalism as a whole. The chapter suggests the Kantian response, namely that ... More


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