## STRING THEORY AND GAUGE THEORY

*Marcos Mariño*

### in Chern-Simons Theory, Matrix Models, and Topological Strings

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198568490
- eISBN:
- 9780191717604
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568490.003.0006
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter examines the relationship between gauge theories and topological strings. A precise correspondence between string theory and gauge theory was formulated by 't Hooft (1974), who used as a ... More

## Chern-Simons Theory, Matrix Models, and Topological Strings

*Marcos Mariño*

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198568490
- eISBN:
- 9780191717604
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568490.001.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

In recent years, the old idea that gauge theories and string theories are equivalent has been implemented and developed in various ways, and there are by now various models where the string ... More

## The Case for Background Independence

*Lee Smolin*

### in The Structural Foundations of Quantum Gravity

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- October 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780199269693
- eISBN:
- 9780191699436
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269693.003.0007
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explains the arguments behind the assertion that the correct quantum theory of gravity must be background independent. It begins by recounting how the debate over whether quantum gravity ... More

## Afterword: Implications of Dōgen's Mahāyāna Worldview

*Taigen Dan Leighton*

### in Visions of Awakening Space and Time: D=ogen and the Lotus Sutra

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- May 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780195320930
- eISBN:
- 9780199785360
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320930.003.0006
- Subject:
- Religion, Buddhism

This Afterword speculates about the potential implications of Dōgen's Mahāyāna worldview to contemporary 21st-century concerns. These include making parallels to modern cutting-edge physics and ... More

## Quantum Gravity: Third Edition

*Claus Kiefer*

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- May 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199585205
- eISBN:
- 9780191739378
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585205.001.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book is concerned with the attempts to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity and quantum theory into a theory of quantum gravity. It presents, for the first time, most of the approaches ... More

## STRING FIELD THEORY AND GAUGE THEORIES

*Marcos Mariño*

### in Chern-Simons Theory, Matrix Models, and Topological Strings

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198568490
- eISBN:
- 9780191717604
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568490.003.0007
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter shows that both Chern-Simons gauge theories and matrix models with polynomial potentials can be realized as open string theories. To show that Chern-Simons theory and matrix models with ... More

## String theory

*Claus Kiefer*

### in Quantum Gravity: Third Edition

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- May 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199585205
- eISBN:
- 9780191739378
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585205.003.0009
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses at length the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. After a general introduction which includes the emergence of the graviton for the free string, the Polyakov path ... More

## TOPOLOGICAL STRINGS

*Marcos Mariño*

### in Chern-Simons Theory, Matrix Models, and Topological Strings

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198568490
- eISBN:
- 9780191717604
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568490.003.0004
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Type-A and type-B topological sigma models are two topological field theories in two dimensions. Although they contain a lot of information in genus 0, they turn out to be trivial for g > 1. This is ... More

## TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELD THEORY AND BOSONIZATION

*Kazuo Fujikawa and Hiroshi Suzuki*

### in Path Integrals and Quantum Anomalies

- Published in print:
- 2004
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198529132
- eISBN:
- 9780191712821
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529132.003.0008
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses the quantum anomalies in two-dimensional field theory. Two-dimensional field theory is important in connection with conformal field theory and its applications to string theory ... More

## TOPOLOGICAL SIGMA MODELS

*Marcos Mariño*

### in Chern-Simons Theory, Matrix Models, and Topological Strings

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198568490
- eISBN:
- 9780191717604
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568490.003.0003
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

String theory can be regarded, at the algebraic level, as a two-dimensional conformal field theory coupled to two-dimensional gravity. When the conformal field theory is also a topological field ... More

## String Theory

*Claus Kiefer*

### in Quantum Gravity

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- January 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199212521
- eISBN:
- 9780191707377
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199212521.003.09
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses at length the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. After a general introduction which includes the emergence of the graviton for the free string, the Polyakov path ... More

## APPLICATIONS OF THE TOPOLOGICAL STRING/GAUGE THEORY CORRESPONDENCE

*Marcos Mariño*

### in Chern-Simons Theory, Matrix Models, and Topological Strings

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198568490
- eISBN:
- 9780191717604
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568490.003.0010
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter considers two applications of the topological string/gauge theory correspondence. The first application is to Chern-Simons knot and link invariants, and the second application is to ... More

## Why Three Dimensions?

*Nick Huggett*

### in Everywhere and Everywhen: Adventures in Physics and Philosophy

- Published in print:
- 2010
- Published Online:
- May 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780195379518
- eISBN:
- 9780199776559
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379518.003.0006
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The question of the ‘shape’ of space can be approached in two ways: whether space is ‘curved’ or ‘flat’ is discussed later, these chapters address ‘topology’, the properties that would stay the same ... More

## Quantum Gravity

*Claus Kiefer*

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- January 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199212521
- eISBN:
- 9780191707377
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199212521.001.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book is concerned with the attempts to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity and quantum theory into a theory of quantum gravity. Among the approaches include canonical quantum gravity ... More

## Loose Ends

*Michael Munowitz*

### in Knowing: The Nature of Physical Law

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780195167375
- eISBN:
- 9780199787104
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195167375.003.0012
- Subject:
- Physics, History of Physics

This excursion into physical law concludes with a peek over the horizon, a glimpse into the knowable unknown. Three principal issues are considered: (1) the origin of the universe, currently modeled ... More

## Harmonic morphisms between semi-Riemannian manifolds

*Paul Baird and John C. Wood*

### in Harmonic Morphisms Between Riemannian Manifolds

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198503620
- eISBN:
- 9780191708435
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198503620.003.0014
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Pure Mathematics

This final chapter discusses how the main definitions and results need to be modified in the semi-Riemannian case. In this context, harmonic maps include the strings of mathematical physics. Weakly ... More

## Beyond the Third Dimension?

*Nick Huggett*

### in Everywhere and Everywhen: Adventures in Physics and Philosophy

- Published in print:
- 2010
- Published Online:
- May 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780195379518
- eISBN:
- 9780199776559
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379518.003.0005
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The question of the ‘shape’ of space can be approached in two ways: whether space is ‘curved’ or ‘flat’ is discussed later, these chapters address ‘topology’, the properties that would stay the same ... More

## Inflationary observables and string theory

*Eva Silverstein*

### in Post-Planck Cosmology: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 100, July 2013

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- March 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780198728856
- eISBN:
- 9780191795794
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728856.003.0010
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter covers the theoretical structure and phenomenology of some basic mechanisms for inflation. A full treatment of the problem requires “ultraviolet completion” because of the sensitivity of ... More

## Collective Belief, Kuhn, and the String Theory Community

*James Owen Weatherall and Margaret Gilbert*

### in The Epistemic Life of Groups: Essays in the Epistemology of Collectives

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- April 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198759645
- eISBN:
- 9780191820380
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198759645.003.0011
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Margaret Gilbert has proposed that ascriptions of beliefs to scientific communities generally involve a common notion of collective belief. Assuming that this interpretive hypothesis is correct, and ... More

## Bangs, Bubbles, and Branes: Atomists Versus Stoics, Take Two

*Mary-Jane Rubenstein*

### in Worlds Without End: The Many Lives of the Multiverse

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- November 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780231156622
- eISBN:
- 9780231527422
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Columbia University Press
- DOI:
- 10.7312/columbia/9780231156622.003.0006
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter focuses on the development of the Big Bang theory and its impact on subsequent cosmological theories. The twentieth century began with the notion of a single, static, infinite world; but ... More