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Introduction

Arnold J. Wilkins

in Visual Stress

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198521747
eISBN:
9780191706691
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521747.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This introductory chapter discusses eye-strain as a physical consequence of visual stimulation, and then provides an overview of the remainder of the book. A general and unified theory of visual ... More


The Politics of the Euro-Zone: Stability or Breakdown?

Kenneth Dyson

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241651
eISBN:
9780191599118
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241651.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

The Euro‐zone represents the single most important step in European integration since 1957 and one of the boldest economic, monetary, and political projects in modern history. This book examines the ... More


The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry: The Bond Valence Model

I. David Brown

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199298815
eISBN:
9780191708879
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298815.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

The bond valence model, which is derived from the ionic model, is expressed through a number of rules and equations that determines which acid-base bond structures can exist. Chief among these rules ... More


The Prospects for a Stable Euro‐Zone: A Strength–Strain Model

Kenneth Dyson

in The Politics of the Euro-Zone: Stability or Breakdown?

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241651
eISBN:
9780191599118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241651.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

This chapter aims to identify the critical variables conditioning the vulnerability of the Euro‐zone to systemic breakdown. It outlines a strength–strain model of stability, which points to an ... More


Post‐Industrial Pressures on the Mature Welfare States

Paul Pierson

in The New Politics of the Welfare State

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297567
eISBN:
9780191600104
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297564.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This is the third of three chapters on the sources of pressure on contemporary national welfare states, all of which seek to show how examining the sources of strain carries implications for ... More


Genotypic Specificity of Grass-Endophyte Interactions

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

For ongoing coevolution of the grass-endophyte symbiosis through the agents of natural selection, there must be genetic variation within populations for both host and endophyte. The breeding systems ... More


STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS AND THE “DEFECT STATE”

A. S. Argon

in Strengthening Mechanisms in Crystal Plasticity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198516002
eISBN:
9780191705717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198516002.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

What governs the state of order of a solid depends primarily on the type of atomic bonding and on the processing path. The interest in this book is almost entirely in solids in the crystalline state ... More


Strains and Drug Resistance

Christopher Dye

in The Population Biology of Tuberculosis

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154626
eISBN:
9781400866571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154626.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter examines the geographical distribution of resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their time trends. Apart from drug resistance, there are plenty of other main questions about ... More


Lighting

Arnold J. Wilkins

in Visual Stress

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198521747
eISBN:
9780191706691
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521747.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Most electric lighting pulsates in brightness twice with each cycle of the alternating electricity supply. Fluorescent lighting fluctuates to such an extent as to affect the firing of visual neurons. ... More


Feathers for flight

John J. Videler

in Avian Flight

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199299928
eISBN:
9780191714924
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299928.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

This chapter provides an overview of the macroscopic and microscopic structure of contour feathers, each with a shaft, vanes, barbs, and barbules. Mechanical properties, including hardness, ... More


The Development of Persistent Criminality

Joanne Savage (ed.)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195310313
eISBN:
9780199871384
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310313.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This volume addresses one of the most pressing problems of modern criminology: Why do some individuals become chronic, persistent offenders? Chronic offenders are responsible for the majority of ... More


Evolution and prehistory of malaria

Robert Sallares

in Malaria and Rome: A History of Malaria in Ancient Italy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199248506
eISBN:
9780191714634
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199248506.003.0003
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter considers the timing of the introduction of falciparum malaria to southern Europe in antiquity. It moves backwards in time to discuss the earlier coevolution of malaria and modern humans ... More


Art and Organisation

David Manning

in Vaughan Williams on Music

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195182392
eISBN:
9780199851485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182392.003.0020
Subject:
Music, History, Western

This chapter knows on the best authority that the wise thrush sings every song through twice, and this cannot be done without some amount of organization. Or take the case of the solitary reaper. She ... More


The Implications of Family Poverty for a Pattern of Persistent Offending

Carter Hay and Walter Forrest

in The Development of Persistent Criminality

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195310313
eISBN:
9780199871384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310313.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The effect of family poverty on individual involvement in crime has long been an important issue in criminological research. A limitation in much of this research involves the tendency of examining ... More


Strain, Social Support, and Persistent Criminality

Stephanie Ellis and Joanne Savage

in The Development of Persistent Criminality

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195310313
eISBN:
9780199871384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310313.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines the role of adolescent strain and social support in the etiology of persistent offending. After reviewing the literature on persistent criminality, strain theory, and social ... More


Developmental Trajectories, Stressful Life Events, and Delinquency *

Timothy O. Ireland, Craig J. Rivera, and John P. Hoffmann

in The Development of Persistent Criminality

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195310313
eISBN:
9780199871384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310313.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Chronic offenders have been a focal concern in criminology since Wolfgang et al. (1972) found that a small proportion of offenders account for a disproportionate amount of crime. Life-course ... More


Farewell

Kathryn Talalay

in Composition in Black and White: The Life of Philippa Schuyler

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195113938
eISBN:
9780199853816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195113938.003.0016
Subject:
History, Cultural History

It was not only Philippa's world that had tumbled, her parents' married life had also reached an impasse. They didn't quarrel about money nor over the way their daughter was raised, but the issue ... More


Strains

Lauren Gerard Koch and Steven L. Britton

in The Behavior of the Laboratory Rat: A Handbook with Tests

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195162851
eISBN:
9780199863891
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162851.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter discusses the development of inbred strains, which relates directly to the use of experimental design for probing cause and effect at all levels of biological organization. Topics ... More


Person-Process-Context: An Ecological Transactional Model

West Stevens Joyce

in Smart and Sassy: The Strengths of Inner-City Black Girls

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195121643
eISBN:
9780199865383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195121643.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

This chapter explains the principal paradigm of the book — the person-process-context model — to answer the question: How do socially stigmatized individuals reconcile basic humanness in daily ... More


Basic concepts II: opposing constructions; literal, purposive and developmental interpretations

F. A. R. Bennion

in Understanding Common Law Legislation: Drafting and Interpretation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199564101
eISBN:
9780191705465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564101.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

It is usually the operation of an enactment that raises crucial issues of fact or law. It must first be ascertained whether a fact of the kind shown is required by the relevant factual outline. ... More


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