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On determinacy or its absence in the brain

HARALD ATMANSPACHER and STEFAN ROTTER

in Free Will and Modern Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264898
eISBN:
9780191754074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264898.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter analyzes the different ways to describe brain behaviour with the goal to provide a basis for an informed discussion of the nature of decisions and actions that humans perform in their ... More


Stochastic Population Dynamics in Ecology and Conservation

Russell Lande, Steinar Engen, and Bernt-Erik Saether

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525257
eISBN:
9780191584930
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525257.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

All populations fluctuate stochastically, creating a risk of extinction that does not exist in deterministic models, with fundamental consequences for both pure and applied ecology. This book ... More


Epilogue

Jan Vijg

in Aging of the Genome: The dual role of DNA in life and death

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198569237
eISBN:
9780191728242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569237.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This epilogue presents some concluding thoughts from the author. Increased stochasticity, beginning at the level of the genome, may work its way through the system and eventually translate into aging ... More


Developing predictive models

E. J. Milner-Gulland and Marcus Rowcliffe

in Conservation and Sustainable Use: A Handbook of Techniques

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198530367
eISBN:
9780191713095
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530367.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

The effective management of natural resources use requires a mechanistic understanding of the system, not just correlations between variables of the kind discussed in Chapter 4. Understanding may ... More


Conclusions and perspectives

Franck Courchamp, Luděk Berec, and Joanna Gascoigne

in Allee Effects in Ecology and Conservation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198570301
eISBN:
9780191717642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570301.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This closing chapter first recapitulates the main notions and information seen in this book, then discusses the main problems related to the definition and to the demonstration of Allee effects; for ... More


Ecological hypercycles—covering a planet with life

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Ecological hypercycles are auto-catalytic processes by which different organisms (or guilds) improve each others environments. For example, autotrophs producing material of use to decomposers and the ... More


The Role of Contingency in Establishment Success

Tim M. Blackburn, Julie L. Lockwood, and Phillip Cassey

in Avian Invasions: The Ecology and Evolution of Exotic Birds

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232543
eISBN:
9780191715983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232543.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Establishment is the stage that has been the focus of most invasion studies in birds. However, the research on this topic has not always been congruent in its findings, and considerable disagreement ... More


Thermal Acclimation

Michael J. Angilletta

in Thermal Adaptation: A Theoretical and Empirical Synthesis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780198570875
eISBN:
9780191718748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570875.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Many organisms adjust their thermal sensitivities in response to environmental conditions. This form of phenotypic plasticity, referred to as acclimation, involves potentially reversible changes in ... More


Randomness and betting strategies

André Nies

in Computability and Randomness

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230761
eISBN:
9780191710988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230761.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Martingales form the mathematical counterpart of betting strategies. This chapter studies computable randomness, where the tests are computable martingales, and separates it from both Martin–Löf ... More


The Implications of Neuronal Stochasticity and Cortical Representation for Behavioral Models of Choice

Paul W. Glimcher

in Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199744251
eISBN:
9780199863433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744251.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

The central premise of the neuroeconomic endeavor is that the iterative process of reductively linking neuroscience, psychology, and economics through theoretical modifications to each discipline ... More


Demographic and environmental stochasticity

Russell Lande, Steinar Engen, and Bernt-Erik SÆther

in Stochastic Population Dynamics in Ecology and Conservation

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525257
eISBN:
9780191584930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525257.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter defines and formulates demographic and environmental stochasticity, and illustrates statistical methods for estimating them from field data. Population fluctuations in most species are ... More


Sustainable harvesting

Russell Lande, Steinar Engen, and Bernt-Erik SÆther

in Stochastic Population Dynamics in Ecology and Conservation

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525257
eISBN:
9780191584930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525257.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter reviews recent analytical models of sustainable harvesting of fluctuating populations without age structure that incorporate the risk of population collapse or extinction. Using ... More


Community dynamics

Russell Lande, Steinar Engen, and Bernt-Erik SÆther

in Stochastic Population Dynamics in Ecology and Conservation

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525257
eISBN:
9780191584930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525257.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Most of conservation biology deals with one species at a time. However, increasing attention is being devoted to the conservation and restoration of landscapes, communities and ecosystems, and how ... More


Drift and the causes of evolution

Sahotra Sarkar

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0021
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter defends a stochastic dynamical interpretation of evolution under which drift does not emerge as an evolutionary cause, unlike mutation and selection. Rather, whether drift occurs in a ... More


Dynamics: Density‐ and Frequency‐Dependent Changes in Trait Distributions

Douglas W. Morris and Per Lundberg

in Pillars of Evolution: Fundamental principles of the eco-evolutionary process

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780198568797
eISBN:
9780191774690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568797.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Although we must understand the mechanical nuts and bolts of inheritance, evolution occurs through changes in the population frequencies of traits, trait values, and genes in time and space, values ... More


Dispersal and eco-evolutionary dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

Ilkka Hanski

in Dispersal Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199608898
eISBN:
9780191774560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608898.003.0023
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the study of dispersal in butterfly populations, in particular the Glanville fritillary butterfly. Many of the processes that influence, and are influenced by, dispersal in ... More


Predicting the effects of climate change on bird population dynamics

Bernt-Erik Sæther, Steinar Engen, Marlène Gamelon, and Vidar Grøtan

in Effects of Climate Change on Birds

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198824268
eISBN:
9780191862809
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198824268.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Animal Biology

Climate variation strongly influences fluctuations in size of avian populations. In this chapter, we show that it is difficult to predict how the abundance of birds will respond to climate change. A ... More


Controllability

G. F. Roach, I. G. Stratis, and A. N. Yannacopoulos

in Mathematical Analysis of Deterministic and Stochastic Problems in Complex Media Electromagnetics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691142173
eISBN:
9781400842650
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691142173.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

This chapter addresses the problem of controllability for stochastic complex electromagnetic media. The starting point is the stochastic integrodifferential equations that model the evolution of the ... More


Weak Randomness at the Origin of Biological Variation: The Case of Genetic Mutations

Francesca Merlin

in Chance in Evolution

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226401744
eISBN:
9780226401911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226401911.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The concept of chance, when used to characterize genetic mutation, has often been analyzed and defined from the evolutionary point of view, i.e., looking at the relationship between mutation, ... More


Punctuated Equilibria and the Rise of the New Paleobiology

David Sepkoski

in Rereading the Fossil Record: The Growth of Paleobiology as an Evolutionary Discipline

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226748559
eISBN:
9780226748580
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226748580.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology

Paleobiology transformed from a loose movement with a fairly uncoordinated set of goals to a bonafide sub-discipline with an active institutional and intellectual agenda. The dynamics of this shift ... More


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