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Types of Threats: From Stereotype Threat to Stereotype Threats

Jenessa R. Shapiro

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The psychological experience of stereotype threat—a concern about being seen through the lens of a negative stereotype—can undermine motivation and performance in stereotype-relevant fields (Steele, ... More


Differentiating Theories: A Comparison of Stereotype Threat and Stereotype Priming Effects1,2

David M. Marx

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

It has been argued that merely priming negative stereotypic traits is sufficient to cause stereotype threat. This chapter discusses theory and research that challenges this assumption by highlighting ... More


An Integration of Processes that Underlie Stereotype Threat

Toni Schmader and Sian Beilock

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The theory of stereotype threat has captivated those who have long struggled to understand why some groups of people seem to systematically underperform in certain domains. But although early ... More


Threatening Gender and RaceDifferent Manifestations of Stereotype Threat

Christine Logel, Jennifer Peach, and Steven J. Spencer

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

We propose that there might be important differences in people’s experience of stereotype threat depending on the group to which they belong, and on the nature of the stereotypes that apply to their ... More


Stereotype Threat in Organizations: An Examination of Its Scope, Triggers, and Possible Interventions

Laura J. Kray and Aiwa Shirako

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explores stereotype threat in organizational contexts. Building on the understanding that stereotype threat involves concerns about confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group, we ... More


Aging and Stereotype Threat: Development, Process, and Interventions

Alison L. Chasteen, Sonia K. Kang, and Jessica D. Remedios

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Age stereotypes are widespread and, although they contain some positive elements, they are primarily negative. It is likely that age stereotypes become internalized at an early age, only to ... More


Stereotype Boost: Positive Outcomes from the Activation of Positive Stereotypes

Margaret J. Shih, Todd L. Pittinsky, and Geoffrey C. Ho

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Stereotype boost theory (SBT) runs in parallel to stereotype threat theory (STT). Although the primary concern of STT is the pernicious effects of negative stereotypes on performance, SBT examines ... More


The Role of Situational Cues in Signaling and Maintaining Stereotype Threat

Mary C. Murphy and Valerie Jones Taylor

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter focuses on how stereotype threat is produced and sustained through threatening situational cues in an environment—such as its organization, features, and physical characteristics—that ... More


Stereotype Threat in the Real World

Joshua Aronson and Thomas Dee

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Hundreds of laboratory experiments have shown that stereotype threat can undermine intellectual performance in the laboratory. But do the same processes demonstrated in the laboratory operate in the ... More


Embodied Stereotype Threat: Exploring Brain and Body Mechanisms Underlying Performance Impairments

Wendy Berry Mendes and Jeremy Jamieson

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In this chapter, we explore brain and body mechanisms that link the experience of stereotype threat to changes in cognitive and behavioral performance. We begin by identifying a model of causal ... More


Stereotype Threat Spillover: The Short- and Long-term Effects of Coping with Threats to Social Identity

Michael Inzlicht, Alexa M. Tullett, and Jennifer N. Gutsell

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Experiencing prejudice has consequences. When people feel like they are being judged by a negative stereotype about their group, they perform poorly in the domain in which the stereotype applies—a ... More


The Impact of Stereotype Threat on Performance in Sports

Jeff Stone, Aina Chalabaev, and C. Keith Harrison

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines the role of stereotype threat in creating racial and gender differences in sports performance. During the last decade, scholars, journalists, and athletes relied on ... More


Concerns About Generalizing Stereotype Threat Research Findings to Operational High-stakes Testing

Paul R. Sackett and Ann Marie Ryan

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The vast majority of stereotype threat research has been done in laboratory settings, and the focus of the chapter is on generalizing findings to the use of cognitive ability tests in high-stakes ... More


Introduction

Michael Inzlicht and Toni Schmader

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Stereotype threat is one of the most widely studied social psychological concepts of the past 20 years. In this introductory chapter, we provide a broad overview of the theory and introduce the goals ... More


Stereotype Threat in Interracial Interactions

Jennifer A. Richeson and J. Nicole Shelton

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter adopts a stereotype threat perspective to examine dynamics of interracial interactions. We first review relevant literature suggesting that both white and racial minority individuals are ... More


Important, Interesting, and Controversial Work on Accuracy, Bias, and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies That Did Not Fit Elsewhere

Lee Jussim

in Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195366600
eISBN:
9780199933044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366600.003.0080
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter reviews interesting and important research on self-fulfilling prophecies, expectancy biases, and accuracy that did not fit elsewhere in this book. With respect to self-fulfilling ... More


Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Michael Inzlicht and Toni Schmader

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Stereotype threat is defined as a situational predicament in which individuals are at risk of confirming negative stereotypes about their group. It is the resulting sense that one might ... More


Social Belonging and the Motivation and Intellectual Achievement of Negatively Stereotyped Students

Gregory M. Walton and Priyanka B. Carr

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

An important consequence of negative stereotypes that impugn non-Asian ethnic minorities’ intellectual ability and women’s mathematical ability is to convey to the targets of these stereotypes that ... More


ConclusionExtending and Applying Stereotype Threat Research: A Brief Essay

Claude M. Steele

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This essay provides a capstone to this edited volume on stereotype threat by addressing three issues related to the original theory. First, stereotype threat arises when we could reasonably theorize ... More


Social Class and Test Performance: From Stereotype Threat to Symbolic Violence and Vice Versa

Jean-Claude Croizet and Mathias Millet

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Each year, the profile report issued by the College Board systematically reveals that Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores are strongly related to parental annual income (College Entrance ... More


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