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The Future of the Welfare State: Crisis Myths and Crisis Realities

Francis G. Castles

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2004
ISBN:
9780199270170
eISBN:
9780191601514
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270171.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This book uses data from 21 OECD countries for the period 1980 to 1998 to test a variety of hypotheses suggesting that contemporary welfare states are in crisis and to establish the factors shaping ... More


Towards a Steady-state Welfare State?

Francis G. Castles

in The Future of the Welfare State: Crisis Myths and Crisis Realities

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2004
ISBN:
9780199270170
eISBN:
9780191601514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270171.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

Seeks to draw the main implications of the previous analysis. It argues that, in recent decades, rather than being under immediate threat, the welfare state in most Western nations has been ... More


A Primer for Dynamical Systems

Kevin S. McCann

in Food Webs (MPB-50)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134178
eISBN:
9781400840687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134178.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter introduces the reader to some of the main conceptual ideas behind dynamical systems theory from the perspective of an experimentalist. It first considers the qualitative approaches used ... More


Steady States

John Hicks

in Capital and Time: A Neo-Austrian Theory

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198772866
eISBN:
9780191596414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198772866.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter examines the properties of steady states. It is shown that most of the familiar properties remain valid in the present model. The chapter focuses on the usual kind of steady state — ... More


The Hot Big Bang

HELGE S. KRAGH

in Conceptions of Cosmos: From Myths to the Accelerating Universe: A History of Cosmology

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199209163
eISBN:
9780191706219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199209163.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter focuses on the emergence and development of the Big Bang theory of the universe, from the mid 1940s to the late 1970s. George Gamow, a main figure in this development, developed an early ... More


Full Performance and Full Employment

John Hicks

in Capital and Time: A Neo-Austrian Theory

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198772866
eISBN:
9780191596414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198772866.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter shows that we are on the way to a steady state theory, which is not substantially different from that which has become conventional. In the steady state, where the structure of the ... More


The Standard Case and the Simple Profile

John Hicks

in Capital and Time: A Neo-Austrian Theory

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198772866
eISBN:
9780191596414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198772866.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter examines an economy which is in a steady state, and traces out the path which will be followed when the steady state is subjected to some kind of disturbance. This problem is considered ... More


Population inversion mechanisms in gas lasers

Alan Corney

in Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211456
eISBN:
9780191705915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211456.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter discusses the reasons why a population inversion is required to obtain optical frequency amplification by stimulated emission. The effects of homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening are ... More


BCIs That Use Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials or Slow Cortical Potentials

Brendan Z. Allison, Josef Faller, and Christa Neuper

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter describes steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), slow cortical potentials (SCPs), and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on these signals. SSVEPs are produced by repetitive ... More


Activation schemes for intramembrane charge in skeletal muscle

Christopher L-H. Huang

in Intramembrane Charge Movements in Striated Muscle

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198577492
eISBN:
9780191724190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198577492.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter explores the possible causal relationship relation between charge species in the membrane of skeletal muscle, which many studies have investigated. It may be suggested that any ... More


Social Security, the Government Budget, and National Savings

Peter Diamond

in Samuelsonian Economics and the Twenty-First Century

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199298839
eISBN:
9780191711480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298839.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter focuses on the implication of overlapping generation models on government policies. The government can choose a higher tax rate than the ‘pay as you go’ rate, to increase the baby boomer ... More


Quantitative description of the steady-state charge

Christopher L-H. Huang

in Intramembrane Charge Movements in Striated Muscle

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198577492
eISBN:
9780191724190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198577492.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter explores applications of equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical principles to the derivation of some limiting properties expected for a capacitative charge in an electric field. The ... More


Finance and Funding

Nicholas Barr and Peter Diamond

in Reforming Pensions: Principles and Policy Choices

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195311303
eISBN:
9780199893461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311303.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Finance and funding are controversial topics. This chapter discusses the pros and cons of relying on dedicated revenue; how to measure the financial position of pensions, including the difference ... More


The thermal diffusion equation

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter looks at solving problems involving the thermal conductivity of matter using a technique developed by mathematicians in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The key equation describes ... More


Fred Hoyle and Hermann Bondi: the Steady-State Theory

Helge Kragh

in Masters of the Universe: Conversations with Cosmologists of the Past

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198722892
eISBN:
9780191789564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722892.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This interview took place in Brussels in 1958 and involved two of the leading protagonists of the steady-state theory of the universe, Fred Hoyle and Hermann Bondi. The theory was an alternative to ... More


Nonequilibrium density matrix for thermal transport in quantum field theory

Benjamin Doyon

in Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 99, August 2012

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198768166
eISBN:
9780191821905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198768166.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter considers one-dimensional quantum systems simultaneously near to, but not exactly at, a critical point and in a far-from-equilibrium steady state. The description uses a density matrix ... More


Evolution and the Dynamics of Technological Change

Joel Mokyr

in The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074772
eISBN:
9780199854981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074772.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter focuses at the dynamics of technological change. It specifically asks whether technological change occurs in leaps and bounds, or whether it takes place gradually and continuously. The ... More


Theological Misinterpretations of Current Physical Cosmology

Adolf Grünbaum

in Collected Works, Volume I: Scientific Rationality, the Human Condition, and 20th Century Cosmologies

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199989928
eISBN:
9780199346356
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199989928.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The main conclusion of this Chapter is that the Big Bang models of (classical) general relativity, as well as the original 1948 versions of the steady state cosmology, are each logically incompatible ... More


Finance and Funding

Nicholas Barr and Peter Diamond

in Pension Reform: A Short Guide

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195387728
eISBN:
9780199870905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387728.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Finance and funding are areas of intense and wide-ranging controversy. After briefly touching on some background issues in the first section, this chapter concentrates on three areas: implicit and ... More


Statistical Mechanics of Steady Flow: Heat and Shear

Phil Attard

in Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics: Foundations and Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199662760
eISBN:
9780191745287
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662760.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The statistical mechanics of steady flows, heat and shear, are presented in detail. For heat flow, the canonical non-equilibrium system, the phase space probability density is given explicitly. An ... More


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