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The Clinical Significance Decision

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

An important element in using evidence to select therapy is the determination of whether a treatment is clinically superior to its competitors. This chapter argues that the determination is a ... More


Using Significance Tests in Establishing Associations

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.23
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Statistical significance testing can be viewed as a formal method for assessing the evidence with regard to a scientific conjecture. It reflects the degree to which we can be confident that an ... More


Accounts of Science

Theodore M. Porter

in Accounting, Organizations, and Institutions: Essays in Honour of Anthony Hopwood

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199546350
eISBN:
9780191720048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546350.003.0014
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, Finance, Accounting, and Banking

The standing of accounting among the academic disciplines has never been very high, in part because the work of accounting is not regarded as suitably creative. Yet when we think of knowledge as a ... More


Making Sense of Associations

J. H. Abramson and Z. H. Abramson

in Making Sense of Data: A Self-Instruction Manual on the Interpretation of Epidemiological Data

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195145250
eISBN:
9780199864775
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195145250.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The exercises in this section deal with the assessment of associations between variables, with special reference to possible effects of shortcomings in the study methods, the strength and other ... More


Random Error

David A. Savitz

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195108408
eISBN:
9780199865765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses random error. Topics covered include taking a sequential approach to considering random and systematic error, special considerations in evaluating random error in observational ... More


Statistics and Statistical Hypotheses

Bradley E. Alger

in Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190881481
eISBN:
9780190093761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881481.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter covers statistics from a conceptual rather than a quantitative perspective. The objective is to distinguish statistical from scientific hypotheses and provide background for later ... More


Introduction

Julia H. Littell, Jacqueline Corcoran, and Vijayan Pillai

in Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195326543
eISBN:
9780199864959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326543.003.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter defines and compares systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Systematic reviews carefully locate relevant evidence and appraise study qualities, while meta-analyses provide quantitative ... More


Tests of Statistical Significance

Brian D. Haig

in The Philosophy of Quantitative Methods: Understanding Statistics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780190222055
eISBN:
9780190871734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190222055.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Chapter 3 provides a brief overview of null hypothesis significance testing and points out its primary defects. It then outlines the neo-Fisherian account of tests of statistical significance, along ... More


Why Statistics Is Slippery: Easy Algorithms Fail in Biology

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in Tainted: How Philosophy of Science Can Expose Bad Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199396412
eISBN:
9780199396436
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396412.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The chapter evaluates the well-known statistical-significance rule for discovering hypotheses and shows that, because scientists routinely misuse this rule, especially with observational and not ... More


The Problem of Passive Observation

Marcel Boumans

in Science Outside the Laboratory: Measurement in Field Science and Economics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199388288
eISBN:
9780199388318
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199388288.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the epistemological scope of field science by exploring the econometric methodology of Trygve Haavelmo. The theories of social field phenomena are inexact; they do not provide ... More


Milton Friedman: A Bayesian?

Gerald P. Dwyer

in Milton Friedman: Contributions to Economics and Public Policy

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198704324
eISBN:
9780191773761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198704324.003.0031
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Milton Friedman’s empirical research is very different in tone and substance to the research in a typical journal article. This chapter points out that the difference in tone and substance is ... More


Confidence Intervals

Dale W. Jorgenson, Richard J. Goettle, Mun S. Ho, and Peter J. Wilcoxen

in Double Dividend: Environmental Taxes and Fiscal Reform in the United States

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262027090
eISBN:
9780262318563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027090.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter describes a method for constructing confidence intervals for general equilibrium model results using the covariance matrices routinely computed in the course of estimating the model's ... More


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