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The Senior Civil Service in France

Luc Rouban

in Bureaucratic Elites in Western European States: A Comparative Analysis of Top Officials

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294467
eISBN:
9780191600067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294468.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

In France, the notion of a senior civil servant is a social rather than a legal one, and senior civil servants may be defined through their role as privileged partners of political power and ... More


Italy's Senior Civil Service: An Ossified World

Sabino Cassese

in Bureaucratic Elites in Western European States: A Comparative Analysis of Top Officials

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294467
eISBN:
9780191600067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294468.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The beginning of the twentieth century saw a progressive southernization of jobs in the Italian public sector, with a sizeable migration of personnel from South to North. In 1995, some 35% of civil ... More


Links between National and Supra‐national Institutions: A Legal View of a New Communicative Univers e

Armin von Bogdandy

in Linking EU and National Governance

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199252268
eISBN:
9780191601040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199252262.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

Chapter 3 explores the new communicative universe that has been established by the European Union, which coins the linkages between supranational and national governance in its own right, not least ... More


The Confucianism as a Religion Controversy in Contemporary China

Anna Sun

in Confucianism as a World Religion: Contested Histories and Contemporary Realities

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155579
eISBN:
9781400846085
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155579.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Hinduism

This chapter examines the contemporary debate in China over whether Confucianism should be classified as a religion. It begins by introducing the formation of the official religious classification, ... More


Redefining State Responsibility in Education

in School, Society, & State: A New Education to Govern Modern America, 1890 – 1940

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226772097
eISBN:
9780226772127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226772127.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

During the National Education Association's Department of Superintendence meeting in 1918 to discuss “centralizing tendencies in educational administration,” Payson Smith, state superintendent of ... More


The Body of Knowledge

Geoffrey Campbell Cocks

in The State of Health: Illness in Nazi Germany

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199695676
eISBN:
9780191738616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695676.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Broad and deep historical trends concerning body, self, mind, and medicine intersected in Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was within this pervasive and powerful nexus ... More


China The Competition Law System and the Country's Norms

Jessica Su and Xiaoye Wang

in The Design of Competition Law Institutions: Global Norms, Local Choices

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199670048
eISBN:
9780191744341
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199670048.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Competition Law, Public International Law

This chapter discusses the history, institutional structure, mandate, procedural characteristics, and agency performance of China's competition law system. China's s Anti-Monopoly Law (AML) became ... More


City Soviet and Commissariats, 1917–1920

Mary McAuley

in Bread and Justice: State and Society in Petrograd 1917-1922

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198219828
eISBN:
9780191678387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198219828.003.0009
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The move to establish the authority of the centre over a wayward and centrifugal society may be a common tendency of revolutionary governments, but the actual constitution of the new central ... More


This Peculiarly Indispensable Commodity: Commodity Integration and Exception during World War I

April Merleaux

in Sugar and Civilization: American Empire and the Cultural Politics of Sweetness

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469622514
eISBN:
9781469622538
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469622514.003.0004
Subject:
History, Imperialism and Colonialism

This chapter examines changes in sugar policies during World War I as the United States took control of the Western Hemisphere's sugar supply and policymakers realized the importance of different ... More


State Administration of Foreign Exchange: A SAFE Tool of Economic Statecraft

William J. Norris

in Chinese Economic Statecraft: Commercial Actors, Grand Strategy, and State Control

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801454493
eISBN:
9781501704031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801454493.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Asian Politics

This chapter examines an instrument of Chinese economic statecraft: the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE), the financial entity in charge of managing China's foreign exchange reserves. ... More


The Wise in the Old Testament

Stuart Weeks

in Early Israelite Wisdom

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198270072
eISBN:
9780191683879
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198270072.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies, Judaism

This chapter examines the references to ‘wise men’ and asks whether they are indeed references to a single class. If so, is this class associated with ... More


Food Will Win the World: Food Aid And American Power

Helen Zoe Veit

in Modern Food, Moral Food: Self-Control, Science, and the Rise of Modern American Eating in the Early Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9781469607702
eISBN:
9781469612751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469607702.003.0004
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This chapter discusses the United States Food Administration, which Woodrow Wilson created when the United States entered the war in 1917. Hoover no longer had to bother with piecemeal fund-raising. ... More


Against the Revolutionary Committees

Burnett Bolloten

in The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469624464
eISBN:
9781469624488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469624464.003.0020
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter addresses the question of dissolving the revolutionary committees—which, in addition to assuming powers of state, had superseded the normal functions of the municipalities and other ... More


Regulating Religion under Communism

Fenggang Yang

in Religion in China: Survival and Revival under Communist Rule

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199735655
eISBN:
9780199918591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735655.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Chapter Four traces the historical evolution of the religious policy under Chinese Communist rule. During the 60 years of Communist rule in China, the atheism-based regulation of religion has had ... More


Trapped in Nabha

B. R. Nanda

in The Nehrus: Motilal and Jawaharlal: With a New Preface

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195693430
eISBN:
9780199081387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195693430.003.0020
Subject:
Political Science, Indian Politics

This chapter examines Motilal and Jawaharlal’s unintentional participation in the Akali agitation in Nabha. It starts with a discussion of the Akali movement, which was originally aimed at the rescue ... More


The Agrarian Intellectuals’ Vision: The Intended New Deal as a Planning Democracy

Jess Gilbert and Richard S. Kirkendall

in Planning Democracy: Agrarian Intellectuals and the Intended New Deal

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780300207316
eISBN:
9780300213393
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300207316.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter presents an overview of the intended New Deal policy for agrarian reform in the 1930s. It examines the work of six agrarian intellectuals who supported the policy, including M. L. ... More


2011—The Remarkable Year!

Karla W. Simon

in Civil Society in China: The Legal Framework from Ancient Times to the "New Reform Era"

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199765898
eISBN:
9780199332540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199765898.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Legal History

This chapter reviews significant civil society developments in 2011. It looks at five-year plans and other matters affecting the growth of civil society organizations (CSOs); scandals and responses; ... More


The Constitution and State Institutions

Simon Butt and Tim Lindsey

in Indonesian Law

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780199677740
eISBN:
9780191757242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199677740.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter provides an overview of Indonesia’s constitutional structure and the institutions that operate within it. It begins with a brief constitutional history, from Independence to the ... More


Introduction: Continuities, Regime Change, and Purges

Malcolm Anderson

in In Thrall to Political Change: Police and Gendarmerie in France

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
February 2015
ISBN:
9780199693641
eISBN:
9780191803758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199693641.003.0022
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

This section of the book explores the influence of the social and political environment on police and policing in France since 1879. It describes how the police and gendarmerie have been affected by ... More


Okinawa and Hawai‘i

Manako Ogawa

in Sea of Opportunity: The Japanese Pioneers of the Fishing Industry in Hawaii

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824839611
eISBN:
9780824869595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824839611.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

The United Fishing Agency started recruiting Okinawan fishermen to Hawai‘i as the result of negotiations with the military government of Okinawa. In addition to Okinawans, the shortage of Japanese ... More


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