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Correction for the Effects of Measurement Error

Walter Willett

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195122978
eISBN:
9780199864249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195122978.003.12
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses the effect of measurement error in epidemiologic studies and statistical methods to compensate for measurement error. Topics covered include types of error, correction of ... More


Inference in Ordinary Least Squares

in Introductory Econometrics: Intuition, Proof, and Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804772624
eISBN:
9780804777209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804772624.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter discusses how to accurately estimate the values of β and α from b and a. Regression produces an estimate of the standard deviation of εi. This, in turn, serves as the basis for estimates ... More


Statistics used in observational studies

Will G. Hopkins

in Sports Injury Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199561629
eISBN:
9780191722479
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561629.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A variety of ways to express the incidence and prevalence of sports injury exists, of which the number of injuries per 1,000 hours of play is the most commonly used. There is no clear answer as to ... More


Hedge Fund Performance and Compensation

Douglas Cumming, Na Dai, and Sofia A. Johan

in Hedge Fund Structure, Regulation, and Performance around the World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199862566
eISBN:
9780199332762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199862566.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Chapter 7 facilitates an understanding of the impact of hedge fund regulation on fund governance and performance by using a cross-country dataset of 3,782 hedge funds from 29 countries. The focus of ... More


What If the Disturbances Have Nonzero Expectations or Different Variances?

in Introductory Econometrics: Intuition, Proof, and Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804772624
eISBN:
9780804777209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804772624.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter shows that the εi's must have the same expected value for regression to make any sense. However, we cannot tell if the εi's have a constant expected value that is different from zero, ... More


Design, data collection, and analysis

Roberto J. Rona and Susan Chinn

in The National Study of Health and Growth

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192629197
eISBN:
9780191723612
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192629197.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes a mixed-longitudinal study. Children were followed for as long as they remained in school, with new five year olds joining and eleven year olds leaving each year. The resulting ... More


Nature of Variation in Diet

Walter Willett

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195122978
eISBN:
9780199864249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195122978.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a conceptual background on the sources of variation in diet. It also assembles data on dietary variation. The daily variation in nutrient intake among free-living subjects has ... More


One-Sample and Difference-of-Means Tests

Quan Li

in Using R for Data Analysis in Social Sciences: A Research Project-Oriented Approach

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780190656218
eISBN:
9780190656256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190656218.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter demonstrates the types of questions one could ask about a continuous random variable of interest and answer using statistical inference. It provides conceptual preparation for ... More


Overview of Empirical Finance Methods to Study Hedge Funds

Douglas Cumming, Na Dai, and Sofia A. Johan

in Hedge Fund Structure, Regulation, and Performance around the World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199862566
eISBN:
9780199332762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199862566.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Chapter 4 introduces definitions of some key measures of hedge fund performance and risk profile. Methods of computing these key measures are provided along with examples using data from CISDM, one ... More


Statistical Toolkit

Carey Witkov and Keith Zengel

in Chi-Squared Data Analysis and Model Testing for Beginners

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198847144
eISBN:
9780191882074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198847144.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chi-squared analysis requires familiarity with basic statistical concepts like the mean, standard deviation and standard error, and uncertainty propagation. Interesting aspects are presented to ... More


Insecuritization

Kent Osband

in Pandora's Risk: Uncertainty at the Core of Finance

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231151733
eISBN:
9780231525411
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231151733.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter presents various statistical frauds in marketing. In Moody's Binomial Expansion Technique (BET), the simplest mixing distribution puts all its weight on a single default risk. This makes ... More


Quantitative Legal Research

P. Ishwara Bhat

in Idea and Methods of Legal Research

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780199493098
eISBN:
9780199098316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199493098.003.0013
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

Study of statistical data becomes inevitable because of the far-reaching socio-economic dimensions, demographic factors, and political implications of law’s operation. Quantitative legal research ... More


Discrete Probability Theory

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198853237
eISBN:
9780191887703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853237.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The chapter presents an overview of various interpretations of probability. It introduces a ‘model probability,’ which assumes that all microscopic states that are essentially alike have the same ... More


Data—too good to be true?

Steve Selvin

in The Joy of Statistics: A Treasury of Elementary Statistical Tools and their Applications

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780198833444
eISBN:
9780191872280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833444.003.0037
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Applied Mathematics

A simple and extensive table that contains an error, reducing the analysis to nonsense.


Comparisons Using Estimates and Intervals

Andy Hector

in The New Statistics with R: An Introduction for Biologists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198729051
eISBN:
9780191795855
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198729051.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

This chapter pulls together material from earlier chapters to give an introductory user’s guide to error bars and intervals. There is no ‘best’ interval that suits all needs. Several different types ... More


Sacropolitics

David Nugent

in The Encrypted State: Delusion and Displacement in the Peruvian Andes

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781503609037
eISBN:
9781503609723
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503609037.003.0002
Subject:
Anthropology, Latin American Cultural Anthropology

This chapter introduces concepts that are crucial to the analysis of The Encrypted State. The most important of these is “sacropolitics,” the politics of public mass sacrifice. This term identifies a ... More


Interrelated and Correlated

Steven J. Osterlind

in The Error of Truth: How History and Mathematics Came Together to Form Our Character and Shape Our Worldview

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780198831600
eISBN:
9780191869532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831600.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter describes quantifying events in America and their historical context. The cotton gin is invented and has tremendous impact on the country, bringing sentiments of taxation and slavery to ... More


Glimpses of Danger and Subversion

David Nugent

in The Encrypted State: Delusion and Displacement in the Peruvian Andes

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781503609037
eISBN:
9781503609723
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503609037.003.0009
Subject:
Anthropology, Latin American Cultural Anthropology

This chapter explores official efforts to understand why state activities that had formerly been ordinary and routine (conscription) become increasingly difficult to carry out. It focuses on the ... More


The Sacropolitics of Labor Conscription

David Nugent

in The Encrypted State: Delusion and Displacement in the Peruvian Andes

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781503609037
eISBN:
9781503609723
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503609037.003.0008
Subject:
Anthropology, Latin American Cultural Anthropology

This chapter analyzes the authorities’ mounting difficulties in conscripting the population for public works—a second “routine” activity they had previously undertaken with great success. The chapter ... More


The Sacropolitics of Military Conscription

David Nugent

in The Encrypted State: Delusion and Displacement in the Peruvian Andes

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781503609037
eISBN:
9781503609723
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503609037.003.0007
Subject:
Anthropology, Latin American Cultural Anthropology

This chapter analyzes the increasingly futile efforts of government officials to conscript the regional population into the armed forces—a mundane activity they had undertaken with ease during the ... More


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